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The energy equivalents given in the literature are reviewed and criticised. New equivalents are calculated for protein respiration.The energy equivalent for converting rate of oxygen consumption into rate of heat production (Q ox cal mg-1 oxygen consumed) is 3.53 cal mg-1 for carbohydrate oxidation, 3.28 cal mg-1 (range 3.22-3.32) for fat oxidation. Q ox(More)
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta (including the anadromous form, sea trout) and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (including anadromous fish) provide important commercial and sports fisheries in Western Europe. As water temperature increases as a result of climate change, quantitative information on the thermal requirements of these three(More)
The distances travelled by drifting invertebrates of 18 taxa were investigated at sites 3 and 4 in the Wilfin Beck, a small stony stream in the English Lake District. Fifty invertebrates of the same taxon were released into the stream at increasing distances upstream from a large net which caught all invertebrates drifting downstream.The relationship(More)
Following a shallow (count vowels) or deep (read) study task, old and new words were tested for both fluency of perception and recognition memory. Subjects first identified a test word as it came gradually into view and then judged it as old or new. Old words were identified faster than new words, indicating implicit, perceptual memory for old words.(More)
In several experiments, observers were given glimpses of 4-word arrays. Accuracy of word localization was tested after each array. Some words, called familiar, appeared many times across the series of arrays; others, called novel, appeared only once. The ratio of novel to familiar words in an array ranged from 0:4 to 4:0. When familiar and novel words were(More)
We found high population densities of Hydra canadensis (up to 30,000 m ') on macrophytes in Lake Opinicon (Ontario, Canada) and tested whether they influenced the survival of larval bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus. Hydra were observed to capture and ingest bluegill larvae in laboratory trials, IndiAduals that ingested fish larvae turned black; those fed a(More)
Mesoporous (H(I)-ePt) platinum microelectrodes electrodeposited from the hexagonal (H(I)) lyotropic liquid crystalline phase are shown to be excellent amperometric sensors for the detection of hydrogen peroxide over a wide range of concentrations. Good reproducibility, high precision, and accuracy of measurements are demonstrated. Mesoporous microelectrodes(More)
The diet of Salmo gairdneri and S. trutta in a Pyrenean stream was very similar, and was also similar to the percentage composition of the drift but not the benthos. There was a good correlation between diel changes in the amount of food (both numbers and biomass) in the stomachs and diel changes in the abundance of drifting invertebrates. The major feeding(More)
1. Changes in the population density of juvenile sea trout Salmo trutta L. and bullheads Cottus gobio L. were compared in a small stream over 34 years. Both species have a similar diet and obviously live in the same general habitat. Habitat loss was most marked in seven summer droughts: severest in 1976, 1983, 1984, 1995, and less severe but followed by(More)
Differences in phenological responses to climate change among species can desynchronise ecological interactions and thereby threaten ecosystem function. To assess these threats, we must quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here, we apply a Climate Sensitivity Profile approach to 10,003 terrestrial and(More)