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BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistant (MDR, resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid) disease, is associated with a worse patient outcome. Drug resistance diagnosed using microbiological culture takes days to weeks, as TB bacteria grow slowly. Rapid molecular tests for drug resistance detection (1 day) are commercially(More)
A routine part of the process for developing National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) medical technologies guidance is a submission of clinical and economic evidence by the technology manufacturer. The Birmingham and Brunel Consortium External Assessment Centre (EAC; a consortium of the University of Birmingham and Brunel University)(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the cost effectiveness of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX 2) selective inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the addition of proton pump inhibitors to these treatments, for people with osteoarthritis. DESIGN An economic evaluation using a Markov model and data from a systematic review was(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative methods of screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in the United Kingdom, including the existing method of indirect ophthalmoscopy by ophthalmologists and digital photographic screening by nurses. METHODS A decision tree model was used to compare five screening modalities for the UK(More)
BACKGROUND Developments in screening technology and increased understanding of the natural history and treatment of inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) have produced pressure to extend neonatal screening programmes. This review aims to assess the evidence for the appropriateness of such programmes. METHODS A formal systematic literature review was(More)
When an economic evaluation incorporates patient-level data, there are two types of uncertainty over the results: uncertainty due to variation in the sampled data, and uncertainty over the choice of modelling parameters and assumptions. Previously statistical methods have been used to estimate the extent of the former, and sensitivity analysis to estimate(More)
OBJECTIVES. To establish a database of literature and other evidence on neonatal screening programmes and technologies for inborn errors of metabolism. To undertake a systematic review of the data as a basis for evaluation of newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism. To prepare an objective summary of the evidence on the appropriateness and need(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the commonest cause of locomotor disability and forms a major element of the workload of the primary care team. There is evidence that patient education may improve quality of life, physical functioning, mental health and coping as well as reducing health service use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a(More)
BACKGROUND A policy of withholding endoscopy in Helicobacter pylori sero-negative dyspeptic patients without sinister symptoms saves up to 36% of endoscopies. However, it is unclear whether the net cost of applying this policy outweighs that of conventional management. AIM To determine the direct (healthcare) and indirect (productivity) costs of applying(More)