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Clostridial neurotoxins have assumed increasing importance in clinical application. The toxin's light chain component (LC) inhibits synaptic transmission by digesting vesicle-docking proteins without directly altering neuronal health. To study the properties of LC gene expression in the nervous system, an adenoviral vector containing the LC of tetanus toxin(More)
The gene for the Light Chain fragment of Tetanus Toxin (LC) induces synaptic inhibition by preventing the release of synaptic vesicles. The present experiment applied this approach within the rat midbrain in order to demonstrate that LC gene expression can achieve functionally and anatomically discrete effects within a sensitive brain structure. The deep(More)
Membranes play a crucial role in cellular functions. Membranes provide a physical barrier, control the trafficking of substances entering and leaving the cell, and are a major determinant of cellular ultra-structure. In addition, components embedded within the membrane participate in cell signaling, energy transduction, and other critical cellular(More)
In 2009, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) started a pilot trial of store-and-forward telemedicine to support field workers. One network was operated in French and one in English; a third, Spanish network was brought into operation in 2012. The three telemedicine pilots were then combined to form a single multilingual tele-expertise system, tailored to support(More)
Store-and-forward telemedicine in resource-limited settings is becoming a relatively mature activity. However, there are few published reports about quality measurement in telemedicine, except in image-based specialties, and they mainly relate to high- and middle-income countries. In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) began to use a store-and-forward(More)
The human genome-scale metabolic reconstruction details all known metabolic reactions occurring in humans, and thereby holds substantial promise for studying complex diseases and phenotypes. Capturing the whole human metabolic reconstruction is an on-going task and since the last community effort generated a consensus reconstruction, several updates have(More)
We have previously proposed a method for assessing the quality of individual teleconsultation cases; this paper proposes an additional step to allow the long-term monitoring of quality. The basic scenario is a teleconsultation system (aka an e-referral system or a tele-expertise system) where the referrer posts a question about a clinical case, the question(More)
We conducted a retrospective analysis of all pediatric cases referred by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) field doctors via the MSF telemedicine system during a 4-year period from April 2010. A total of 467 pediatric cases were submitted, representing approximately 40% of all telemedicine cases. The median age of the patients was 4 years. The median response(More)
User surveys in telemedicine networks confirm that follow-up data are essential, both for the specialists who provide advice and for those running the system. We have examined the feasibility of a method for obtaining follow-up data automatically in a store-and-forward network. We distinguish between follow-up, which is information about the progress of a(More)