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Nanomaterial properties differ from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to execute novel activities. A possible downside of these capabilities is harmful interactions with biological systems, with the potential to generate toxicity. An approach to assess the safety of nanomaterials is urgently required. We compared the cellular(More)
Nanomaterials (NM) exhibit novel physicochemical properties that determine their interaction with biological substrates and processes. Three metal oxide nanoparticles that are currently being produced in high tonnage, TiO(2), ZnO, and CeO(2), were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis process and compared in a mechanistic study to elucidate the(More)
Glut-2 is a low-affinity transporter present in the plasma membrane of pancreatic beta-cells, hepatocytes and intestine and kidney absorptive epithelial cells of mice. In beta-cells, Glut-2 has been proposed to be active in the control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS; ref. 2), and its expression is strongly reduced in glucose-unresponsive(More)
The high metabolic requirements of the mammalian central nervous system require specialized structures for the facilitated transport of nutrients across the blood-brain barrier. Stereospecific high-capacity carriers, including those that recognize glucose, are key components of this barrier, which also protects the brain against noxious substances.(More)
Both the anabolic hormone insulin and contractile activity stimulate the uptake of glucose into mammalian skeletal muscle. In this study, we examined the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), a putative mediator of insulin actions, in the stimulation of hexose uptake in response to hormone and contraction. Phosphatidylinositol(More)
UNLABELLED Despite evidence implicating transcription factors, including STAT3, in oncogenesis, these proteins have been regarded as "undruggable." We developed a decoy targeting STAT3 and conducted a phase 0 trial. Expression levels of STAT3 target genes were decreased in head and neck cancers following injection with the STAT3 decoy compared with tumors(More)
A primary objective of this review is to facilitate the application of the chemical and structural approaches that are currently being employed in the identification of Cys-SOH, as both transient intermediates and stable redox forms, in biochemical systems where these derivatives are suspected of playing key roles in redox catalysis or regulation. These(More)
The high-resolution structures of the wild-type periplasmic domain of the bacterial aspartate receptor have been determined in the absence and presence of bound aspartate to 1.85 and 2.2 A resolution, respectively. As we reported earlier, in the refined structure of the complexed form of the crosslinked cysteine mutant receptor, the binding of the aspartate(More)
In order to obtain the crystal structure of the flavoprotein NADH peroxidase with its native Cys42-sulfenic acid redox center, a strategy combining reduced exposure of crystals to ambient oxygen and data collection at -160 degrees C was applied. The structure of the native enzyme to 2.8 A resolution is described; these results conclusively establish the(More)
HIV-1 Nef, a critical AIDS progression factor, represents an important target protein for antiretroviral drug discovery. Because Nef lacks intrinsic enzymatic activity, we developed an assay that couples Nef to the activation of Hck, a Src family member and Nef effector protein. Using this assay, we screened a large, diverse chemical library and identified(More)