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Nanomaterials (NM) exhibit novel physicochemical properties that determine their interaction with biological substrates and processes. Three metal oxide nanoparticles that are currently being produced in high tonnage, TiO(2), ZnO, and CeO(2), were synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis process and compared in a mechanistic study to elucidate the(More)
Nanomaterial properties differ from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to execute novel activities. A possible downside of these capabilities is harmful interactions with biological systems, with the potential to generate toxicity. An approach to assess the safety of nanomaterials is urgently required. We compared the cellular(More)
Glut-2 is a low-affinity transporter present in the plasma membrane of pancreatic beta-cells, hepatocytes and intestine and kidney absorptive epithelial cells of mice. In beta-cells, Glut-2 has been proposed to be active in the control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS; ref. 2), and its expression is strongly reduced in glucose-unresponsive(More)
The high metabolic requirements of the mammalian central nervous system require specialized structures for the facilitated transport of nutrients across the blood-brain barrier. Stereospecific high-capacity carriers, including those that recognize glucose, are key components of this barrier, which also protects the brain against noxious substances.(More)
A primary objective of this review is to facilitate the application of the chemical and structural approaches that are currently being employed in the identification of Cys-SOH, as both transient intermediates and stable redox forms, in biochemical systems where these derivatives are suspected of playing key roles in redox catalysis or regulation. These(More)
While it has been known for more than 20 years that unusually stable cysteine-sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) derivatives can be introduced in selected proteins by mild oxidation, only recently have chemical and crystallographic evidence for functional Cys-SOH been presented with native proteins such as NADH peroxidase and NADH oxidase, nitrile hydratase, and the(More)
Both the anabolic hormone insulin and contractile activity stimulate the uptake of glucose into mammalian skeletal muscle. In this study, we examined the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), a putative mediator of insulin actions, in the stimulation of hexose uptake in response to hormone and contraction. Phosphatidylinositol(More)
UNLABELLED Despite evidence implicating transcription factors, including STAT3, in oncogenesis, these proteins have been regarded as "undruggable." We developed a decoy targeting STAT3 and conducted a phase 0 trial. Expression levels of STAT3 target genes were decreased in head and neck cancers following injection with the STAT3 decoy compared with tumors(More)
Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through(More)
In order to obtain the crystal structure of the flavoprotein NADH peroxidase with its native Cys42-sulfenic acid redox center, a strategy combining reduced exposure of crystals to ambient oxygen and data collection at -160 degrees C was applied. The structure of the native enzyme to 2.8 A resolution is described; these results conclusively establish the(More)