Joanne C. McNelis

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Chronic low-grade adipose tissue and liver inflammation is a major cause of systemic insulin resistance and is a key component of the low degree of insulin sensitivity that exists in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Immune cells, such as macrophages, T cells, B cells, mast cells and eosinophils, have all been implicated as having a role in this process.(More)
It is well known that the ω–3 fatty acids (ω–3-FAs; also known as n–3 fatty acids) can exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. Commonly consumed as fish products, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals, ω–3-FAs have a number of health benefits ascribed to them, including reduced plasma triglyceride levels, amelioration of atherosclerosis and increased(More)
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfotransferase, known as SULT2A1, converts the androgen precursor DHEA to its inactive sulfate ester, DHEAS [corrected], thereby preventing the conversion of DHEA to an active androgen. SULT2A1 requires 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) for catalytic activity. We have identified compound heterozygous mutations in(More)
Da Young Oh1,*, Evelyn Walenta1, Taro E. Akiyama2, William S. Lagakos1, Denise Lackey1, Ariane R. Pessentheiner1,3, Roman Sasik1, Nasun Hah4, Tyler J. Chi1, Jason M. Cox2, Mary Ann Powels2, Jerry Di Salvo2, Christopher Sinz2, Steven M. Watkins5, Aaron M. Armando6, Heekyung Chung1, Ronald M. Evans4,7, Oswald Quehenberger1,6, Joanne McNelis1, Juliane G.(More)
Obesity-induced inflammation is a key component of systemic insulin resistance, which is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. A major driver of this inflammation/insulin resistance syndrome is the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue and liver. We found that the orphan GPCR Gpr21 was highly expressed in the hypothalamus and macrophages of(More)
Glucocorticoids increase adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, a process underpinned by the local reactivation of inactive cortisone to active cortisol within adipocytes catalyzed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). The adrenal sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been shown to inhibit 11β-HSD1 in murine(More)
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant steroid in the human circulation and is secreted by the adrenals in an age-dependent fashion, with maximum levels during the third decade and very low levels in old age. DHEAS is considered an inactive metabolite, whereas cleavage of the sulfate group generates dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a(More)
The intestinal microbiome can regulate host energy homeostasis and the development of metabolic disease. Here we identify GPR43, a receptor for bacterially produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as a modulator of microbiota-host interaction. β-Cell expression of GPR43 and serum levels of acetate, an endogenous SCFA, are increased with a high-fat diet(More)
OBJECTIVE Adipose tissue is the primary site for lipid deposition that protects the organisms in cases of nutrient excess during obesogenic diets. The histone deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibits adipocyte differentiation by targeting the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma (PPARγ). METHODS To assess the specific role(More)