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The neuronal cell death associated with certain neurodegenerative disorders as well as acute brain injuries is in part due to the reduced expression of glial glutamate transporters and the subsequent accumulation of toxic extracellular glutamate concentrations. Extracellular factors previously found to potently stimulate the expression of the glial(More)
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system which at high extracellular levels leads to neuronal over-stimulation and subsequent excitotoxic neuronal cell death. Both the termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission and the prevention of neurotoxic extracellular glutamate concentrations are predominantly(More)
Injuries to the brain result in the decline of glial glutamate transporter expression within hours and a recovery after several days. One consequence of this disturbed expression seems to consist in the temporary accumulation of toxic extracellular glutamate levels followed by secondary neuronal cell death. Whereas evidence exists that the decline in(More)
The heptapeptide Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) is an analog of the adrenocorticotropin fragment (4-10) which after intranasal application has profound effects on learning and exerts marked neuroprotective activities. Here, we found that a single application of Semax (50 microg/kg body weight) results in a maximal 1.4-fold increase of BDNF protein(More)
Severe brain lesions are accompanied by sustained increases in endothelin (ET) levels, which in turn profoundly affect brain microcirculation and neural cell function. A known response of astrocytes to acute increases in ET levels is the rapid and transient closure of gap junctions and the subsequent decrease of gap junction-mediated intercellular(More)
In most brain areas, uptake of extracellular glutamate predominantly occurs through the glutamate transporter subtype, glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which is enriched in astroglia. Here, we report the identification of five splice variants of the 5'-leader sequence of rat GLT-1 which contain varying numbers of upstream open reading frames and encode(More)
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