Joanna R M Armstrong Schellenberg

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BACKGROUND Studies of factors affecting place of delivery have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study combines an understanding of gender issues relating to health and help-seeking behaviour with epidemiological knowledge concerning place of delivery. METHODS In-depth interviews, focus group(More)
Malaria remains the most important parasitic cause of mortality in humans. Its presentation is thought to vary according to the intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission. However, detailed descriptions of presenting features and risk factors for death are only available from moderate transmission settings. Such descriptions help to improve case(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have been done to assess socioeconomic inequities in health in African countries. We sought evidence of inequities in health care by sex and socioeconomic status for young children living in a poor rural area of southern Tanzania. METHODS In a baseline household survey in Tanzania early in the implementation phase of integrated(More)
Asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites occurs frequently in endemic areas and the detection of parasites in a blood film from a febrile individual does not necessarily indicate clinical malaria. In areas of low and moderate endemicity the parasite prevalence in fever cases can be compared with that in community controls to estimate the fraction of cases(More)
BACKGROUND WHO and UNICEF launched the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy in the mid-1990s to reduce deaths from diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, measles, and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years. We assessed the effect of IMCI on health and nutrition of children younger than 5 years in Bangladesh. METHODS In this cluster(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated nets have proven efficacy as a malaria-control tool in Africa. However, the transition from efficacy to effectiveness cannot be taken for granted. We assessed coverage and the effect on child survival of a large-scale social marketing programme for insecticide-treated nets in two rural districts of southern Tanzania with high(More)
BACKGROUND Although malaria is a leading cause of child deaths, few well-documented estimates of its direct and indirect burden exist. Our objective was to estimate the number of deaths directly attributable to malaria among children <5 years old in sub-Saharan Africa for the year 2000. METHODS We divided the population into six sub-populations and, using(More)
BACKGROUND Early and frequent antenatal care attendance during pregnancy is important to identify and mitigate risk factors in pregnancy and to encourage women to have a skilled attendant at childbirth. However, many pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa start antenatal care attendance late, particularly adolescent pregnant women. Therefore they do not fully(More)
Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) at routine antenatal care (ANC) clinics is an important and efficacious intervention to reduce adverse health outcomes of malaria infections during pregnancy. However, coverage for the recommended two IPTp doses is still far below the 80% target in Tanzania. This paper investigates the combined(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that the age-pattern of Plasmodium falciparum malaria varies with transmission intensity. A better understanding of how this varies with the severity of outcome and across a range of transmission settings could enable locally appropriate targeting of interventions to those most at risk. We have, therefore, undertaken a pooled(More)