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Fine roots play a significant role in plant and ecosystem respiration (RS); therefore, understanding factors controlling that process is important both to advancing understanding and potentially in modelling carbon (C) budgets. However, very little is known about the extent to which ectomycorrhizal (ECM) identity may influence RS or the underlying chemistry(More)
The production of enzymes involved in mycoparasitism by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Amanita muscaria (16-3), Laccaria laccata (9-12), L. laccata (9-1), Suillus bovinus (15-4), S. bovinus (15-3), S. luteus (14-7) on different substrates such as colloidal chitin, mycelia of Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and Mucor hiemalis was examined.(More)
A quick and simple method has been developed to detect the presence or absence of the endogenous Rous-associated virus (RAV) element ev1 in chickens. The procedure consists of a one-tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) involving three oligonucleotide primers that are specific for the upstream flanking region, the long terminal repeat (LTR), and(More)
Understory shrubs are frequently attacked by insect herbivores. However, very little is known regarding possible interactions between light condition, defoliation (D) and fine root vitality (% live roots) and metabolic activity, and whether different plant strategies (compensation, trade-off and equilibrium) to defoliation depend on individual species light(More)
Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately(More)
Ectomycorrhizal fungi are known to synthesize antifungal compounds both in vitro and in symbiosis with the host-plants. Culture filtrates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus (at pHs of 2.5-6) showed antifungal activity towards saprotrophs Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma virens and the pathogen Heterobasidion annosum, by significantly(More)
The monophagous beetle, Altica brevicollis coryletorum, is a major leaf pest of Corylus avellana (common hazel). In contrast to majority of the other studied species of shrubs, sunlit leaves are grazed to a much greater extent than shaded leaves. Since the observation of a link between leaf irradiance level and A. brevicollis feeding is unique, we(More)
Physiological changes in host plants in response to the broad spectrum of fungal modes of infection are still not well understood. The current study was conducted to better understand the infection of in vitro cultures of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings by three trophically diverse fungal species, Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. & Swingle, Trichoderma harzianum(More)
Defence mechanisms in trees are not well understood. We assessed whether distribution of iron ions and their co-localisation with reactive oxygen species in Pinus sylvestris root cells reflect differential preferences of the pathogens Heterobasidion annosum sensu stricto, H. parviporum and H. abietinum to the host. Strains of H. annosum s.s. characterised(More)
Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity(More)