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BACKGROUND Recent reports estimate the prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions in the UK to be 1%. AIMS To use different methods to estimate the prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions, including previously undiagnosed cases, in Cambridgeshire. METHOD We carried out a survey of autism-spectrum conditions using the Special Educational Needs (SEN)(More)
The canonical view of the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted experimental model for memory processes, is that new gene transcription contributes to its consolidation; however, the gene networks involved are unknown. To address this issue, we have used high-density Rat 230.2 Affymetrix arrays to establish a set of genes induced(More)
The duration of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of awake rats was examined following systematic manipulation of the number of stimulus trains delivered. This was correlated with the induction of immediate early genes in separate groups of animals given identical stimulus regimes. Following 10 trains of stimulation, long-term potentiation decayed(More)
Memory is fundamentally important to everyday life, and memory loss has devastating consequences to individuals and society. Understanding the neurophysiological and cellular basis of memory paves the way for gaining insights into the molecular steps involved in memory formation, thereby revealing potential therapeutic targets for neurological diseases. For(More)
Long-term potentiation-inducing stimulation of the perforant path was followed in dentate gyrus granule cells by a dramatic increase of mRNA and protein for Krox20, a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor. Induction of Krox20 required stimulation sufficient to induce LTP and was prevented by NMDA antagonists CPP and MK-801, which block LTP induction.(More)
Previous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists as potential antipsychotics. Recent studies utilizing mGluR2-, mGluR3-, and double knockout mice support that the antipsychotic effects of those compounds are mediated by mGluR2. Indeed, biphenyl indanone-A (BINA), an(More)
Activation of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in rat hippocampus induces a form of long-term depression (LTD) that is dependent on protein synthesis. However, the intracellular mechanisms leading to the initiation of protein synthesis and expression of LTD after mGluR activation are only partially understood. We investigated the role of(More)
The persistence of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus was compared for two tetanization protocols: 50 trains on one day, or 50 trains on 5 consecutive days. LTP induction was significantly greater in the 250 train condition, but the LTP decay rate over weeks was similar between conditions. The decay of LTP could not be accounted for by(More)
The present study determined the detailed pharmacological profile of heterologously expressed human (h) homomeric 5-HT3A receptors in direct comparison to heteromeric h5-HT3A/3B receptors. The very minor differences in their respective pharmacological profiles indicates that the 5-HT3B receptor subunit alters, predominantly, the biophysical rather than the(More)
Synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus is dependent on activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-subtype of glutamate receptors. In this study, we show that synaptic plasticity in turn regulates NMDA receptors, since subunits of the NMDA receptor complex are bidirectionally and independently regulated in the dentate gyrus following activation of(More)