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BACKGROUND Recent reports estimate the prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions in the UK to be 1%. AIMS To use different methods to estimate the prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions, including previously undiagnosed cases, in Cambridgeshire. METHOD We carried out a survey of autism-spectrum conditions using the Special Educational Needs (SEN)(More)
The duration of long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of awake rats was examined following systematic manipulation of the number of stimulus trains delivered. This was correlated with the induction of immediate early genes in separate groups of animals given identical stimulus regimes. Following 10 trains of stimulation, long-term potentiation decayed(More)
Activation of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in rat hippocampus induces a form of long-term depression (LTD) that is dependent on protein synthesis. However, the intracellular mechanisms leading to the initiation of protein synthesis and expression of LTD after mGluR activation are only partially understood. We investigated the role of(More)
We examined the effects of two protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors on the induction of synaptic plasticity in CA1 slices of rat hippocampus. Field potential recordings were made in stratum radiatum in response to stimulation of the Schaffer collateral afferents. Bath application of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors sodium orthovanadate or phenylarsine(More)
The canonical view of the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted experimental model for memory processes, is that new gene transcription contributes to its consolidation; however, the gene networks involved are unknown. To address this issue, we have used high-density Rat 230.2 Affymetrix arrays to establish a set of genes induced(More)
The properties of long-term potentiation (LTP) mirror those of associative memory in a number of interesting ways. Although plasticity at monosynaptic connections is not expected to account for the varied subtle characteristics of distributed memories, nonetheless it is important to establish how far the parallels can be drawn. Here, we briefly address(More)
Long-term potentiation-inducing stimulation of the perforant path was followed in dentate gyrus granule cells by a dramatic increase of mRNA and protein for Krox20, a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor. Induction of Krox20 required stimulation sufficient to induce LTP and was prevented by NMDA antagonists CPP and MK-801, which block LTP induction.(More)
Previous preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists as potential antipsychotics. Recent studies utilizing mGluR2-, mGluR3-, and double knockout mice support that the antipsychotic effects of those compounds are mediated by mGluR2. Indeed, biphenyl indanone-A (BINA), an(More)
N-Methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDAR) form ion channels made up of polypeptides from two classes of subunits; NR1 is obligatory for function whereas members of the NR2 class regulate the properties of the channel. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is an event largely dependent on NMDAR activation, and is studied as the primary(More)
Despite a wealth of evidence in vitro that AMPA receptors are inserted into the postsynaptic membrane during long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unclear whether this occurs in vivo at physiological concentrations of receptors. To address the issue of whether native AMPA or NMDA receptors undergo such trafficking during LTP in the adult brain, we(More)