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The transcriptional adaptor protein Gcn5 has been identified as a nuclear histone acetyltransferase (HAT). Although recombinant yeast Gcn5 efficiently acetylates free histones, it fails to acetylate histones contained in nucleosomes, indicating that additional components are required for acetylation of chromosomal histones. We report here that Gcn5(More)
The nucleosome, which is the primary building block of chromatin, is not a static structure: It can adopt alternative conformations. Changes in solution conditions or changes in histone acetylation state cause nucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays to behave with altered biophysical properties. Distinct subpopulations of nucleosomes isolated from cells have(More)
The SWI/SNF protein complex is required for the enhancement of transcription by many transcriptional activators in yeast. Here it is shown that the purified SWI/SNF complex is composed of 10 subunits and includes the SWI1, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6 gene products. The complex exhibited DNA-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity, but(More)
Promoter-specific recruitment of histone acetyltransferase activity is often critical for transcriptional activation. We present a detailed study of the interaction between the histone acetyltransferase complexes SAGA and NuA4, and transcription activators. We demonstrate by affinity chromatography and photo-cross-linking label transfer that acidic(More)
To investigate mechanisms by which multiple transcription factors access complex promoters and enhancers within cellular chromatin, we have analyzed the binding of disparate factors to nucleosome cores. We used a purified in vitro system to analyze binding of four activator proteins, two GAL4 derivatives, USF, and NF-kappa B (KBF1), to reconstituted(More)
We have purified and characterized a Gcn5-independent nucleosomal histone H3 HAT complex, NuA3 (Nucleosomal Acetyltransferase of histone H3). Peptide sequencing of proteins from the purified NuA3 complex identified Sas3 as the catalytic HAT subunit of the complex. Sas3 is the yeast homolog of the human MOZ oncogene. Sas3 is required for both the HAT(More)
SAGA, a recently described protein complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is important for transcription in vivo and possesses histone acetylation function. Here we report both biochemical and genetic analyses of members of three classes of transcription regulatory factors contained within the SAGA complex. We demonstrate a correlation between the phenotypic(More)
The generation of a local chromatin topology conducive to transcription is a key step in gene regulation. The yeast SWI/SNF complex is the founding member of a family of ATP-dependent remodelling activities capable of altering chromatin structure both in vitro and in vivo. Despite its importance, the pathway by which the SWI/SNF complex disrupts chromatin(More)
We have purified distinct complexes of nine to 12 proteins [referred to as BRG1-associated factors (BAFs)] from several mammalian cell lines using an antibody to the SWI2-SNF2 homolog BRG1. Microsequencing revealed that the 47 kDa BAF is identical to INI1. Previously INI1 has been shown to interact with and activate human immunodeficiency virus integrase(More)
Transcriptional co-activators were originally identified as proteins that act as intermediaries between upstream activators and the basal transcription machinery. The discovery that co-activators such as Tetrahymena and yeast Gcn5, as well as human p300/CBP, pCAF, Src-1, ACTR and TAFII250, can acetylate histones suggests that activators may be involved in(More)