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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abnormalities in the parvalbumin-containing subclass of local circuit neurons contribute to altered gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic subjects. METHOD Profile counts and somal size measures were made of parvalbumin-immunoreactive(More)
Macrophages (MØ) and mononuclear phagocytes are major targets of infection by dengue virus (DV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause haemorrhagic fever in humans. To our knowledge, we show for the first time that the MØ mannose receptor (MR) binds to all four serotypes of DV and specifically to the envelope glycoprotein. Glycan analysis, ELISA, and(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that a set of predominantly myeloid restricted receptors (F4/80, CD36, Dectin-1, CD200 receptor and mannan binding lectins) and the broadly expressed CD200 played a role in a key function of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), virally induced type I interferon (IFN) production. The Dectin-1 ligands zymosan, glucan phosphate and the(More)
OBJECTIVES Drugs that target host cell processes can be employed to complement drugs that specifically target viruses, and iminosugar compounds that inhibit host α-glucosidases have been reported to show antiviral activity against multiple viruses. Here the effect and mechanism of two iminosugar α-glucosidase inhibitors, N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ)(More)
Conjugates between photosensitisers (PS) and charged polymeric carriers are under investigation for photodynamic therapy of cancer and may allow targeting to certain cell types or compartments in tumours. Covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol to macromolecules (pegylation) may alter their pharmacokinetics, cell type targeting, and photophysical(More)
Inactivated influenza A virus and fixed, virus-infected cells induce type 1 interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) production in murine splenocytes. In this study, we have explored the nature of the virus-spleen cell interaction that leads to IFN-alpha/beta induction and the reason for the poor response to some virus strains. IFN-alpha/beta induction by horse(More)
The CD45RA hi CD11c int plasmacytoid predendritic cells (p-preDCs) of mouse lymphoid organs, when stimulated in culture with CpG or influenza virus, produce large amounts of type I inter-ferons and transform without division into CD8 ϩ CD205 Ϫ DCs. P-preDCs express CIRE, the murine equivalent of DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing(More)
TO THE EDITOR—A recent trial [1] investigated the use of a glucocorticosteroid, prednisolone, as a therapy for reduction of severe dengue disease. Many pathogens induce accelerated or excessive inflammation , resulting in detrimental rather than protective effects [2], and dengue virus is a well-characterized example of this phenomenon. Several soluble(More)
Analogues of the neurotransmitter substance P (SP) can interact with neuropeptide receptors, and are reported to inhibit growth of small cell lung cancer cell lines (SCLC CLs). We found [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11] substance P (D-Phe5SP) significantly inhibited DNA synthesis by 10/10 human tumour CLs; six SCLC, one N-SCLC (squamous), two ovarian and(More)
It has long been thought that iminosugar antiviral activity is a function of inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-resident α-glucosidases, and on this basis, many iminosugars have been investigated as therapeutic agents for treatment of infection by a diverse spectrum of viruses, including dengue virus (DENV). However, iminosugars are glycomimetics(More)