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BACKGROUND As patients with mood disorders manifest heterogeneity in phenomenology, pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment response, a biological classification of mental disease is urgently needed to advance research. Patient and methodological variability complicates the comparison of neuroimaging study results and limits heuristic model development and(More)
OBJECTIVE To review extant literature implicating inflammation in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, we review evidence regarding the anti-inflammatory actions of mood-stabilizing medication, the putative reciprocal association of inflammation with behavioral parameters and medical burden in bipolar disorder, and the potential role of(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The aim of this review is to synthesize results from extant investigations which report on the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder and medical comorbidity. RECENT FINDINGS We conducted a MEDLINE search of all English-language articles published between January 2004 and November 2006. Most studies report on medical comorbidity in bipolar(More)
It is well established that individuals with bipolar disorder are differentially affected by substance-related as well as medical disorders (ie, cardiometabolic disorders, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases). Emerging evidence indicates that some comorbid conditions (eg, diabetes mellitus) in bipolar individuals may be(More)
BACKGROUND The association between circulating total testosterone (TT) levels and depressive symptoms remains unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between physiologically active bioavailable testosterone (BT) and depressive symptoms in middle-aged men with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS We assessed and compared calculated(More)
Incretins are a group of gastrointestinal hormones detected both peripherally and in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies have documented multiple effects of incretins on brain structure and function. Research into the neurological effects of incretins has primarily focused on animal models of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's(More)
Current evidences support inflammation, oxidative and nitrogen stress, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling mechanisms as important in depression pathophysiology. Tetracycline antibiotics have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Preliminary evidence indicates that minocycline has antidepressant properties. Doxycycline(More)
BACKGROUND A nascent explanatory theory regarding the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder posits that alterations in metabolic networks (e.g., insulin and glucocorticoid signaling) mediate allostasis. METHOD We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and September 2006. The search terms were:(More)
OBJECTIVE This is the first cross-national population-based investigation exploring the prevalence and functional implications of comorbid general medical disorders in bipolar disorder. METHODS Data were extracted from the Canadian Community Health Survey (N = 36,984). Analyses were conducted to ascertain the prevalence and prognostic implications of(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical research in mood disorders increasingly involves advanced neuroimaging techniques. The encompassing aim of this review is to provide the mental health care practitioner with a pragmatic understanding of neuroimaging approaches and their possible clinical application. METHODS We conducted a literature search of English-language articles(More)