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Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) often overlaps clinically with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), both of which have prominent eye movement abnormalities. To investigate the ability of oculomotor performance to differentiate between FTLD, Alzheimer's disease, CBS and PSP, saccades and smooth pursuit were measured(More)
Deficits in the ability to suppress automatic behaviors lead to impaired decision making, aberrant motor behavior, and impaired social function in humans with frontal lobe neurodegeneration. We have studied patients with different patterns of frontal lobe dysfunction resulting from frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease, investigating(More)
BACKGROUND Deficits in the generation and control of saccades have been described in clinically defined frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE To determine the saccade abnormalities associated with autopsy-defined cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and of AD, because clinical FTD syndromes can correspond to a(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is a potent trophic factor for midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, but its in vivo function and signaling mechanisms are not entirely understood. We show that the transcriptional cofactor homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is required for the TGFbeta-mediated survival of mouse DA neurons. The targeted(More)
OBJECTIVE To create and validate a simple, standardized version of the antisaccade (AS) task that requires no specialized equipment for use as a measure of executive function in multicenter clinical studies. METHODS The bedside AS (BAS) task consisted of 40 pseudorandomized AS trials presented on a laptop computer. BAS performance was compared with AS(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this study is to summarize recent advances in ageing and neuroAIDS by reviewing relevant articles from the preceding 18 months from PubMed and PsycINFO databases. RECENT FINDINGS The success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to ageing of the HIV-infected population, which in turn contributes to the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre-antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare central nervous system (CNS) outcomes in participants treated during acute HIV infection with standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vs. cART plus integrase inhibitor and CCR5 antagonist (cART+). DESIGN 24-week randomized open-label prospective evaluation. METHOD Participants were evaluated then randomized to initiate(More)
Controversy exists as to whether the central nervous system (CNS) serves as a reservoir site for HIV, in part reflecting the varying perspectives on what constitutes a 'reservoir' versus a mere site of latent viral integration. However, if the CNS proves to be a site of HIV persistence capable of replicating and reseeding the periphery, leading to failure(More)
The implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has changed HIV infection into a chronic illness, conveying extensive benefits, including greater longevity and advantages for the central nervous system (CNS). However, studies increasingly confirm that the CNS gains are incomplete, with reports of persistent immune activation affecting the(More)