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Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) exhibit cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral problems, and numerous secondary disabilities including depression and anxiety disorders. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is common in depression/anxiety, reflected primarily in increased HPA tone or activity. Prenatal(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the ovine premammillary hypothalamic area (PMH) is an important target for the pineal hormone, melatonin, and its role in seasonal reproduction. In rodents, the PMH is a complex region consisting of several cell groups with differing neurochemical content and anatomical connections. Therefore, to obtain a better understanding(More)
Prenatal exposure to alcohol has adverse effects on offspring neuroendocrine and behavioural functions. Alcohol readily crosses the placenta, thus directly affecting developing foetal endocrine organs. In addition, alcohol-induced changes in maternal endocrine function can disrupt the normal hormonal interactions between the pregnant female and foetal(More)
In adulthood, both alcohol (ethanol) and stress are known to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Similarly, most studies report that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces cell proliferation and/or cell survival in the hippocampus of adult males. Furthermore, PAE is known to have marked effects on behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(More)
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters adult neurogenesis and the neurogenic response to stress in male rats. As the effects of stress on neurogenesis are sexually dimorphic, the present study investigated the effects of PAE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis under both nonstressed and stressed conditions in female rats. Pregnant females were assigned to one(More)
Seasonal anestrus in ewes is driven by an increase in response to estradiol (E2) negative feedback. Compelling evidence indicates that inhibitory A15 dopaminergic (DA) neurons mediate the increased inhibitory actions of E2 in anestrus, but these neurons do not contain estrogen receptors. Therefore, we have proposed that estrogen-responsive afferents to A15(More)
Prenatal ethanol exposure, like other early adverse experiences, is known to alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in adulthood. The present study examined the modulatory effects of the gonadal hormones on basal HPA regulation and serotonin Type 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)) mRNA levels in adult female rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (E) compared(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies on male rodents found that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) decreases the number of serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in the brainstem. However, data on the effects of PAE in females are lacking. In light of known sex differences in responsiveness of the 5-HT system and known effects of estrogen (E2 ) and progesterone (P4(More)
GABA has been shown to play an important role in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone secretion in many mammals. In sheep, seasonal differences in the ability of GABA-B receptor antagonists to alter pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion have led to the hypothesis that this receptor subtype mediates the increased(More)
BACKGROUND Rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (E) typically show increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses to stressors in adulthood. Importantly, prenatal ethanol may differentially alter stress responsiveness in male and female offspring, suggesting a role for the gonadal hormones in mediating the effects of ethanol on HPA activity. We(More)