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Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) exhibit cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral problems, and numerous secondary disabilities including depression and anxiety disorders. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is common in depression/anxiety, reflected primarily in increased HPA tone or activity. Prenatal(More)
Allatotropin (AT) was isolated from the moth Manduca sexta as a peptide stimulating biosynthesis of juvenile hormone in the corpora allata, but has also been shown to be cardioactive in the same species. Here, we have investigated the presence and biological activity of AT-like peptide in the cockroaches Leucophaea maderae and Periplaneta americana with(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the ovine premammillary hypothalamic area (PMH) is an important target for the pineal hormone, melatonin, and its role in seasonal reproduction. In rodents, the PMH is a complex region consisting of several cell groups with differing neurochemical content and anatomical connections. Therefore, to obtain a better understanding(More)
Prenatal exposure to alcohol has adverse effects on offspring neuroendocrine and behavioural functions. Alcohol readily crosses the placenta, thus directly affecting developing foetal endocrine organs. In addition, alcohol-induced changes in maternal endocrine function can disrupt the normal hormonal interactions between the pregnant female and foetal(More)
In adulthood, both alcohol (ethanol) and stress are known to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Similarly, most studies report that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces cell proliferation and/or cell survival in the hippocampus of adult males. Furthermore, PAE is known to have marked effects on behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(More)
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters adult neurogenesis and the neurogenic response to stress in male rats. As the effects of stress on neurogenesis are sexually dimorphic, the present study investigated the effects of PAE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis under both nonstressed and stressed conditions in female rats. Pregnant females were assigned to one(More)
Seasonal anestrus in ewes is driven by an increase in response to estradiol (E2) negative feedback. Compelling evidence indicates that inhibitory A15 dopaminergic (DA) neurons mediate the increased inhibitory actions of E2 in anestrus, but these neurons do not contain estrogen receptors. Therefore, we have proposed that estrogen-responsive afferents to A15(More)
Several cardioactive peptides have been identified in insects and most of them are likely to act on the heart as neurohormones. Here we have investigated the cardioactive properties of members of a family of insect tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) in heterologous bioassays with two coleopteran insects, Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus. Their effects(More)
Prenatal ethanol exposure, like other early adverse experiences, is known to alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity in adulthood. The present study examined the modulatory effects of the gonadal hormones on basal HPA regulation and serotonin Type 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)) mRNA levels in adult female rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (E) compared(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies on male rodents found that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) decreases the number of serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in the brainstem. However, data on the effects of PAE in females are lacking. In light of known sex differences in responsiveness of the 5-HT system and known effects of estrogen (E2 ) and progesterone (P4(More)