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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular proteases that have well recognized roles in cell signaling and remodeling in many tissues. In the brain, their activation and function are customarily associated with injury or pathology. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for MMP-9 in hippocampal synaptic physiology, plasticity, and memory. MMP-9 protein(More)
Dicer-dependent noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), play an important role in a modulation of translation of mRNA transcripts necessary for differentiation in many cell types. In vivo experiments using cell type-specific Dicer1 gene inactivation in neurons showed its essential role for neuronal development and survival. However, little is known(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prefrontal cortex (PFC) plasticity is important for developing new treatment strategies for mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a valid model for synaptic plasticity. The extracellular proteolytic system composed of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and(More)
More than 20 matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and four of their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) act together to control tightly temporally restricted, focal proteolysis of extracellular matrix. In the neurons of the adult brain several components of the TIMP/MMP system are expressed and are responsive to changes in neuronal activity. Furthermore,(More)
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by localized abnormalities of cortical layering and neuronal morphology. It is associated with pharmacologically intractable forms of epilepsy in both children and adults. The mechanisms that underlie FCD-associated seizures and lead to the progression of the disease are unclear.(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 has recently emerged as an important molecule in control of extracellular proteolysis in the synaptic plasticity. However, no synaptic targets for its enzymatic activity had been identified before. In this report, we show that beta-dystroglycan comprises such a neuronal activity-driven target for matrix metalloproteinase-9. This(More)
We have previously shown that Ttyh1 mRNA is expressed in neurons and its expression is up-regulated in the brain during epileptogenesis and epilepsy. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of Ttyh1 in neurons. We found widespread expression of Ttyh1 protein in neurons in vivo and in vitro. Ttyh1 immunoreactivity in vitro was frequently found in(More)
Communication of cells with their extracellular environment is crucial to fulfill their function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The literature data provide evidence that such a communication is also important in case of astrocytes. Mechanisms that contribute to the interaction between astrocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins(More)
Studies in cultured cells have demonstrated the existence of higher-order epigenetic mechanisms, determining the relationship between expression of the gene and its position within the cell nucleus. It is unknown, whether such mechanisms operate in postmitotic, highly differentiated cell types, such as neurons in vivo. Accordingly, we examined whether the(More)
Smad2 and Smad3 are intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling that share various biochemical properties, but data emerging from functional analyses in several cell types indicate that these two Smad proteins may convey distinct cellular responses. Therefore, we have investigated the individual roles of Smad2 and Smad3 in(More)