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Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is markedly overexpressed in Alzheimer's disease. We found the IL-1A 2,2 genotype in 12.9% of 232 neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease patients and 6.6% of 167 controls from four centers in the United Kingdom and United States (odds ratio, 3.0; controlled for age and for ApoE [apolipoprotein E] genotype). Homozygosity for(More)
Mutations in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance cause a wide range of clinical phenotypes associated with the secondary accumulation of multiple mtDNA deletions in affected tissues. The majority of families with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) harbour mutations in genes encoding one of three(More)
From the somewhat conflicting published data on apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype in hemorrhage due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), it is unclear whether apoE genotype influences the risk of CAA-related hemorrhage independently of its association with concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD). We determined the apoE genotypes of 36 patients presenting with(More)
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with apolipoprotein E (APOE gene, apoE protein) polymorphism: current evidence suggests that the epsilon4 allele is a risk factor for the development of CAA and the epsilon2 allele predisposes to hemorrhage. We sought to determine the relationship between the APOE epsilon2 allele and both the immunoreactivity(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the Twinkle (PEO1) gene are a recognized cause of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO), resulting in the accumulation of multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibers in skeletal muscle secondary to a disorder of mtDNA maintenance. Patients typically present(More)
Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation may contribute to the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral ischemia. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation, and immunoreactivity to 4-HNE has been used to examine lipid peroxidation in the pathogenesis of AD and ischemia. This study(More)
The instability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals harboring pathogenic mutations in the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma (POLG) is well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In 5 pediatric patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy and valproic acid-induced liver failure, we(More)
As already previously reported the EXCLI Journal closely cooperates with the Archives of Toxicology as a partner for articles focussing on basic and clinical research (Bolt, 2011; Bolt and Stewart, 2011). To give our readers an overview over current cutting-edge topics in toxicology we publish a compilation of brief 'key messages' from the most cited(More)
BACKGROUND Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is a type of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia for which molecular diagnosis is available. We identified 4 families segregating the MJD mutation in which no unequivocal clinical diagnosis could be established prior to molecular testing. Ethnic background, clinical, and molecular characteristics of 19(More)