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The relationship between stress and obesity remains elusive. In response to stress, some people lose weight, whereas others gain. Here we report that stress exaggerates diet-induced obesity through a peripheral mechanism in the abdominal white adipose tissue that is mediated by neuropeptide Y (NPY). Stressors such as exposure to cold or aggression lead to(More)
In response to stress, some people lose while others gain weight. This is believed to be due to either increased beta-adrenergic activation, the body's main fat-burning mechanism, or increased intake of sugar- and fat-rich "comfort foods." A high-fat, high-sugar (HFS) diet alone, however, cannot account for the epidemic of obesity, and chronic stress alone(More)
Neuroblastomas are pediatric tumors that develop from sympathetic precursors and express neuronal proteins, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). NPY is a sympathetic neurotransmitter acting via multiple receptors (Y1-Y5R). Both NPY and Y2Rs are commonly expressed in neuroblastoma cell lines and tissues. The peptide secreted from neuroblastomas stimulates tumor(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter recently found to be potently angiogenic and growth promoting for endothelial, vascular smooth muscle and neuronal cells. NPY and its cognate receptors, Y1, Y2 and Y5, are expressed in neural crest-derived tumors; however, their role in regulation of growth is unknown. The effect of NPY on the growth(More)
Previously we showed that neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurotransmitter, stimulates endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro. Here, we report on NPY's actions, receptors, and mediators in ischemic angiogenesis. In rats, hindlimb ischemia stimulates sympathetic NPY release (attenuated by lumbar(More)
Age-related changes in NPY-driven angiogenesis were investigated using Matrigel and aortic sprouting assays in young (2 months.) and aged (18 months.) mice. In both assays, NPY-induced vessel growth decreased significantly with age. In parallel, aged mice showed reduced expression (RT-PCR) of Y2 receptors and the NPY converting enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, acts via G protein-coupled receptors to stimulate constriction and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation through interactions with its Y1 receptors. However, VSMC proliferation appears bimodal, with high- and low-affinity peaks differentially blocked by antagonists of both Y1 and Y5 receptors.(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter and vasoconstrictor, also stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, but which of its Y1-Y5 receptors are involved remains unclear. In quiescent rat VSMCs, NPY receptor mRNAs were undetectable (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), but Y1, Y2, and Y5 expression were upregulated or(More)
Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) is a group of aggressive pediatric malignancies driven by the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein, an aberrant transcription factor up-regulating specific target genes, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y1 and Y5 receptors (Y5Rs). Previously, we have shown that both exogenous NPY and endogenous NPY stimulate ESFT cell death via(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter recently found to be a potent growth and angiogenic factor. The peptide and its receptors are abundant in neural crest-derived tumors, such as sympathetic neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas, as well as parasympathetic Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. NPY regulates their growth directly, by an(More)