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Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found… (More)
Phages are called “good viruses” due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G−) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in… (More)
The study of the immune system started about a hundred years ago with the phagocytosis experiments of Mechnikov. That which is now referred to as non-specific cell-mediated immunity was quickly linked to studies related to, inter alia, the immunity determined by antibodies (humoral), which has long been considered as the first line of defense against… (More)
The paper presents the characteristics of biological alternatives to antibiotics, that are bacteriophages, bacterial cell wall hydrolases and antimicrobial alternatives. Those substances are promising candidates that can successfully replace a lot of chemioterapeutics at the time of antibiotic-resistance.
Commensal bacteria are microorganisms that occur among others in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and urogenital tract not exhibit the characteristics of pathogenicity, and act on the immune system and the metabolism of macroorganism and "create" protective barrier against pathogenic bacteria. Currently, it is estimated that the number of commensal… (More)