Joann Shen

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Pathological laughing and crying, or pseudobulbar affect (PBA), has been described in patients with neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) since the 19th century (Schiffer 2005). The syndrome is characterized by inappropriate episodes of laughing or(More)
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