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BACKGROUND Activation of Akt and increased expression of integrin β(3) are the two most important changes that have been linked to the attainment of metastatic potential by prostate cancer cells. However, a direct link between Akt activity and inside-out activation of integrin β(3) in mediating prostate cancer cell metastatic properties is not established.(More)
The long-term pathological effects of chronic epilepsy on normal brain ageing are unknown. Previous clinical and epidemiological studies show progressive cognitive decline in subsets of patients and an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in epilepsy. In a post-mortem series of 138 patients with long-term, mainly drug-resistant epilepsy, we carried(More)
Dravet syndrome is an epilepsy syndrome of infantile onset, frequently caused by SCN1A mutations or deletions. Its prevalence, long-term evolution in adults and neuropathology are not well known. We identified a series of 22 adult patients, including three adult post-mortem cases with Dravet syndrome. For all patients, we reviewed the clinical history,(More)
Blood-brain barrier dysfunction is implicated in various neurological conditions. Modulating the blood-brain barrier may have therapeutic value. Progress is hindered by our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of the blood-brain barrier in humans, partly due to restricted availability of human tissue, and because human tissue can only provide(More)
Human brain tissue is a valuable source of material for research. It is often stored indefinitely in formalin at room temperature which may weaken the immunolabeling with formalin-sensitive antibodies. The present study found that a novel protocol that combined citrate and formic acid pre-treatments with the catalyzed signal amplification (CSA) system was(More)
Detailed neuropathological studies of the extent of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in epilepsy along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus are lacking. Neuroimaging studies of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy support that sclerosis is not always localised. The extent of HS is of relevance to surgical planning and poor outcomes may relate to residual HS(More)
INTRODUCTION Activation of the mTOR pathway has been linked to the cytopathology and epileptogenicity of malformations, specifically Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) and Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC). Experimental and clinical trials have shown than mTOR inhibitors have anti-epileptogenic effects in TS. Dysmorphic neurones and balloon cells are hallmarks of FCDIIb(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[(11)C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with(More)
Key questions remain regarding the processes governing gliogenesis following central nervous system injury that are critical to understanding both beneficial brain repair mechanisms and any long-term detrimental effects, including increased risk of seizures. We have used cortical injury produced by intracranial electrodes (ICEs) to study the time-course and(More)
PURPOSE Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in critical aspects of cell survival in response to hypoxia and regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Previous experimental and human studies in epilepsy show up-regulation of VEGF following seizures, although expression of HIF-1α as its potential regulator has not been(More)