Joan Y. W. Liu

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PURPOSE A diagnostic feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type II on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increased subcortical white matter (WM) signal on T2 sequences corresponding to hypomyelination, the cause of which is unknown. We aimed to quantify WM pathology in FCD type II and any deficiency in the numbers and differentiation of(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[(11)C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with(More)
Dravet syndrome is an epilepsy syndrome of infantile onset, frequently caused by SCN1A mutations or deletions. Its prevalence, long-term evolution in adults and neuropathology are not well known. We identified a series of 22 adult patients, including three adult post-mortem cases with Dravet syndrome. For all patients, we reviewed the clinical history,(More)
Blood-brain barrier dysfunction is implicated in various neurological conditions. Modulating the blood-brain barrier may have therapeutic value. Progress is hindered by our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of the blood-brain barrier in humans, partly due to restricted availability of human tissue, and because human tissue can only provide(More)
OBJECTIVE PAX6 is a pleiotropic transcription factor essential for the development of several tissues including the eyes, central nervous system, and some endocrine glands. Recently it has also been shown to be important for the maintenance and functioning of corneal and pancreatic tissues in adults. We hypothesized that PAX6 is important for the(More)
INTRODUCTION Activation of the mTOR pathway has been linked to the cytopathology and epileptogenicity of malformations, specifically Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) and Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC). Experimental and clinical trials have shown than mTOR inhibitors have anti-epileptogenic effects in TS. Dysmorphic neurones and balloon cells are hallmarks of FCDIIb(More)
The long-term pathological effects of chronic epilepsy on normal brain ageing are unknown. Previous clinical and epidemiological studies show progressive cognitive decline in subsets of patients and an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in epilepsy. In a post-mortem series of 138 patients with long-term, mainly drug-resistant epilepsy, we carried(More)
Human brain tissue is a valuable source of material for research. It is often stored indefinitely in formalin at room temperature which may weaken the immunolabeling with formalin-sensitive antibodies. The present study found that a novel protocol that combined citrate and formic acid pre-treatments with the catalyzed signal amplification (CSA) system was(More)
PURPOSE Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in critical aspects of cell survival in response to hypoxia and regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Previous experimental and human studies in epilepsy show up-regulation of VEGF following seizures, although expression of HIF-1α as its potential regulator has not been(More)
Detailed neuropathological studies of the extent of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in epilepsy along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus are lacking. Neuroimaging studies of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy support that sclerosis is not always localised. The extent of HS is of relevance to surgical planning and poor outcomes may relate to residual HS(More)