Joan W. Witkin

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The secretion of the gonadotropins is modulated by the gonadal steroids, but the means by which these effects are mediated are not well understood. The present anatomical study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that the GnRH system responds to alterations in the gonadal steroid environment with reversible changes in synaptic input and glial(More)
We present a quantitative immunocytochemical study of GnRH migration by developmental stage. GnRH peptide was detected in cells of the olfactory epithelium at stage 19. Migration was initiated a few hours later at stage 20. Of interest is the observation that GnRH neurons paused at the central nervous system border for 3 days, entering the brain at stage(More)
Immunocytochemical procedures on thick, unembedded sections were used to visualize the neurons and their processes that contain LHRH-immunoreactive material in the rat central nervous system (CNS). In animals pretreated with colchicine (75 micrograms, intraventricularly), cell bodies could be observed as far anterior as the olfactory bulb and posterior to(More)
GnRH neurons form the final common pathway regulating the secretion of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary. Since the patterns of gonadotropin release display profound sexual dimorphism among mammals including the rodent, we undertook an ultrastructural analysis to determine whether these neurosecretory cells were differentially innervated between the(More)
The ultrastructural appearance of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) immunoreactive elements was studied in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of adult male Fischer 344 rats. The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and morphology of innervation of the LHRH neuron. Although not numerous, both axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses(More)
In neuroendocrine cells, Ca2+ triggers fusion of granules with the plasma membrane and functions at earlier steps by increasing the size of the readily releasable pool of vesicles. The effect of Ca2+ at early steps of secretion may be due to the recruitment at the plasma membrane of granules localized in the cytoplasm. To study the mechanism of granule(More)
Peripheral injections of the tracer fluorogold (FG) and immunocytochemistry were used to study the modulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cell secretory activity in adult mice. Intraperitoneal administration of FG would make it available to all GnRH terminals outside the blood-brain barrier. The degree of capture of the dye would be linked to(More)
The issue of whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the primate contain the estrogen receptor was examined by immunocytochemistry using prepubertal and adult (intact and ovariectomized) female rhesus macaques. No GnRH neurons were found to contain nuclei that were immunoreactive for the estrogen receptor. These results confirm in primates(More)
SNAP-25 is a synaptosomal associated protein localized at the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. SNAP-25 associates with syntaxin 1 and vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) and is thought to form a complex essential for neurotransmitter release. We have identified syndet, a novel protein related to the family of SNAP-25 isoforms. Like SNAP-25,(More)
Activation of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion, essential for the initiation of puberty, is brought about by the interaction of neurotransmitters and astroglia-derived substances. One of these substances, transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), has been implicated as a facilitatory component of the glia-to-neuron signaling process controlling the(More)