Joan W Berman

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As part of a study on the role of cytokines in central nervous system development and dysfunction, we determined the pattern of cytokine production in highly purified cultures of microglia and astrocytes isolated from second-trimester human fetal brains. Levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 mRNA and protein were determined by Northern blot analysis and(More)
Encephalitis and dementia associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are characterized by leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, microglia activation, aberrant chemokine expression, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and eventual loss of neurons. Little is known about whether human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection of leukocytes(More)
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the senile plaque, composed of beta-amyloid fibrils, microglia, astrocytes, and dystrophic neurites. We reported previously that class A scavenger receptors mediate adhesion of microglia and macrophages to beta-amyloid fibrils and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-coated surfaces. We also showed that(More)
Chemokines are low molecular weight chemotactic cytokines that have been shown to play a central role in the perivascular transmigration and accumulation of specific subsets of leukocytes at sites of tissue damage. Two major families have been defined depending on the positioning of four conserved cysteines. The CXC chemokines predominantly attract(More)
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated dementia is often characterized by chronic inflammation, with infected macrophage infiltration of the CNS resulting in the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) products, including tat, and neurotoxins that contribute to neuronal loss. In addition to their established role in leukocyte(More)
In this work, the effects of bacterial LPS, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma on gap junctional communication (dye coupling) and on the expression of connexin43 (immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and RT-PCR) in monocytes/macrophages were studied. Freshly isolated human monocytes plated at high density and treated either with LPS plus IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha plus(More)
HIV tat is the transactivator of HIV-1, supporting efficient viral replication by stabilizing the transcription of viral genes. Tat can be released from HIV-infected cells and alter several functions in uninfected cells. In the brain, tat induces neuronal dysfunction/toxicity, even though neurons cannot be directly infected with HIV, resulting in CNS(More)
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) that result from HIV infection of the central nervous system is increasing. Macrophages, the primary target for HIV within the central nervous system, play a central role in HIV-induced neuropathogenesis. Drug abuse exacerbates HAND, but the mechanism(s) by which(More)
AIDS dementia is characterized by neuronal loss in association with synaptic damage. A central predictor for clinical onset of these symptoms is the infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into CNS parenchyma. Chronic HIV-1 infection of monocytes also allows these cells to serve as reservoirs for persistent viral infection. Using a coculture of(More)
HIV infection of the central nervous system can result in neurologic dysfunction with devastating consequences in AIDS patients. NeuroAIDS is characterized by neuronal injury and loss, yet there is no evidence that HIV can infect neurons. Here we show that the HIV-encoded protein tat triggers formation of a macromolecular complex involving the low-density(More)