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Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation and affects many aspects of brain development. DS individuals exhibit an overall reduction in brain size with a disproportionately greater reduction in cerebellar volume. The Ts65Dn mouse is segmentally trisomic for the distal 12-15 Mb of mouse chromosome 16, a region that shows(More)
Mouse genetic models can be used to dissect molecular mechanisms that result in human disease. This approach requires detection and demonstration of compelling parallels between phenotypes in mouse and human. Ts65Dn mice are at dosage imbalance for many of the same genes duplicated in trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS), the most common live-born human(More)
Developmental biology holds keys to our understanding of morphological pattern formation whether these patterns are expressed in the fossil record or among extant species. Though much is known about osseous growth at the cellular level (e.g. Hall, 1991), we have minimal understanding of the coordinated processes that combine to produce a complex,(More)
The "Down syndrome critical region" (DSCR) is a chromosome 21 segment purported to contain genes responsible for many features of Down syndrome (DS), including craniofacial dysmorphology. We used chromosome engineering to create mice that were trisomic or monosomic for only the mouse chromosome segment orthologous to the DSCR and assessed dysmorphologies of(More)
Nontraditional or geometric morphometric methods have found wide application in the biological sciences, especially in anthropology, a field with a strong history of measurement of biological form. Controversy has arisen over which method is the "best" for quantifying the morphological difference between forms and for making proper statistical statements(More)
Computed tomography (CT) has brought to the craniofacial surgeon a three-dimensional representation of internal structures. CT scans provide visualization of anatomy for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. Beyond visualization, however, a CT scan enables assessment of measurements useful to clinicians and basic scientists. All measurement(More)
Analysis of biological forms using landmark data has received substantial attention recently. Much of the statistical work in this area has concentrated on the estimation of average form, average form difference, and average growth difference. From the statistical, as well as the scientific point of view, it is important that any estimate of a(More)
The goal of this study is to characterize the differences between normal cranial morphology and that of patients diagnosed with isolated sagittal synostosis, using three-dimensional (3D) landmark coordinate data collected from computed tomography (CT) scans. This retrospective study uses pre-operative CT images of a sample of children diagnosed with(More)
For problems of classification and comparison in biological research, the primary focus is on the similarity of forms. A biological form can be conveniently defined as consisting of size and shape. Several approaches for comparing biological shapes using landmark data are available. Lele (1991a) critically discusses these approaches and proposes a new(More)
Evolutionary history of Mammalia provides strong evidence that the morphology of skull and brain change jointly in evolution. Formation and development of brain and skull co-occur and are dependent upon a series of morphogenetic and patterning processes driven by genes and their regulatory programs. Our current concept of skull and brain as separate tissues(More)