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The "Down syndrome critical region" (DSCR) is a chromosome 21 segment purported to contain genes responsible for many features of Down syndrome (DS), including craniofacial dysmorphology. We used chromosome engineering to create mice that were trisomic or monosomic for only the mouse chromosome segment orthologous to the DSCR and assessed dysmorphologies of(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation and affects many aspects of brain development. DS individuals exhibit an overall reduction in brain size with a disproportionately greater reduction in cerebellar volume. The Ts65Dn mouse is segmentally trisomic for the distal 12-15 Mb of mouse chromosome 16, a region that shows(More)
Mouse genetic models can be used to dissect molecular mechanisms that result in human disease. This approach requires detection and demonstration of compelling parallels between phenotypes in mouse and human. Ts65Dn mice are at dosage imbalance for many of the same genes duplicated in trisomy 21 or Down syndrome (DS), the most common live-born human(More)
Computed tomography (CT) has brought to the craniofacial surgeon a three-dimensional representation of internal structures. CT scans provide visualization of anatomy for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. Beyond visualization, however, a CT scan enables assessment of measurements useful to clinicians and basic scientists. All measurement(More)
Analysis of biological forms using landmark data has received substantial attention recently. Much of the statistical work in this area has concentrated on the estimation of average form, average form difference, and average growth difference. From the statistical, as well as the scientific point of view, it is important that any estimate of a(More)
Developmental biology holds keys to our understanding of morphological pattern formation whether these patterns are expressed in the fossil record or among extant species. Though much is known about osseous growth at the cellular level (e.g. Hall, 1991), we have minimal understanding of the coordinated processes that combine to produce a complex,(More)
Nontraditional or geometric morphometric methods have found wide application in the biological sciences, especially in anthropology, a field with a strong history of measurement of biological form. Controversy has arisen over which method is the "best" for quantifying the morphological difference between forms and for making proper statistical statements(More)
Anatomical landmarks are defined as biologically meaningful loci that can be unambiguously defined and repeatedly located with a high degree of accuracy and precision. The neurocranial surface is characteristically void of such loci. We define a new class of landmarks, termed fuzzy landmarks, that will allow us to represent the form of the neurocranium. A(More)
The goal of this study is to characterize the differences between normal cranial morphology and that of patients diagnosed with isolated sagittal synostosis, using three-dimensional (3D) landmark coordinate data collected from computed tomography (CT) scans. This retrospective study uses pre-operative CT images of a sample of children diagnosed with(More)
This study investigates whether macaques and humans possess a common pattern of relative growth during the fetal period. The fetal samples consist of 16 male pigtailed macaques (mean age, 20.5 gestational weeks) and 17 humans (9 males and 8 females; mean age, 29.5 gestational weeks). For each individual, three-dimensional coordinates of 18 landmarks on the(More)