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The upper airway muscles play an important role in breathing, swallowing, and speaking, but little is known about the electromyogram (EMG)-force relationship of these muscles. We have measured the peak integrated EMG activity (iEMG) and force of human nasal dilator muscles (NDM) with a custom-designed headpiece that was attached via the forehead and upper(More)
There is evidence to suggest that the olfactory and circadian systems are linked, functionally, and that olfactory stimuli can modulate circadian rhythms in mammals. Furthermore, olfactory bulb removal can alter free-running rhythms in animals housed in constant darkness and can attenuate the effect of social stimuli on photic entrainment of circadian(More)
Compression injury of the spinal cord of cats produced increased outflux of potassium from the damaged site. Conduction by large axons in sensory pathways of the spinal cord was blocked partially by bathing the cord in solutions containing potassium concentrations of the order of 50-100 mEq/liter. It is suggested that block by increased K+ concentration in(More)
We used immunostaining for Fos to study the effect of circadian clock phase on odor-induced neuronal activation in the olfactory system in rats. Brief presentation of cedar odor to rats housed in constant darkness stimulated Fos expression in the main olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, and several other odor-responsive structures,(More)
Repeated exposure to the psychostimulant drug, amphetamine, results in a persistent increase in the ability of the drug to elicit behavioral activation.(14,19) The development of sensitized responses to amphetamine involves long-lasting neuroadaptations within defined circuitry.(3,6,12,15,23) The behavioral expression of sensitization, however, can come(More)
Our primary aim was to determine whether reducing the activity of nasal airway receptors would influence drive to the nasal dilator muscles (NDMs) during exercise. We used lidocaine (2%) or nasal splints to diminish afferent airway receptor activity and measured the electromyogram (EMG) activity of the NDMs during incremental bicycle exercise in subjects(More)
Stability of pyridoxal 5Ј-phosphate semicarbazone: applications in plasma vitamin B 6 analysis and population surveys of vitamin B 6 nutritional status. Determination of pyridoxal 5Ј-phosphate in human serum by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with spectrofluorometric detection of 4-pyridoxic acid 5Ј-phosphate as a derivative.(More)
Entropy coding is a lossless compression technique which is supported in H.264/AVC standard by different techniques. According to baseline and the extended profiles of H.264/AVC, two variable length techniques are for seen. The first one is context adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) and the other is exponential Golomb (Exp-Golomb) one. The CAVLC is(More)