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Whereas many young children show initial wariness on meeting a stranger, shyness that lasts into middle childhood may be indicative of concurrent problems and subsequent disorder. Adjustment problems of an internalising nature, such as low self-esteem, loneliness, and anxiety may occur. Special significance has, however, been ascribed to preadolescent(More)
Children were selected according to criteria for high or low behavioral inhibition (BI) on the basis of both a maternal questionnaire and interviewer ratings at home. Subsequent laboratory assessments involved further BI ratings as well as heart period (HP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). BI, HP, and RSA were all moderately stable from 4.5 to 7(More)
The hypothesis that the same organization of attachment that can been seen in reunion with mother following a separation would be revealed in the child's responses to separation pictures was upheld. This supports the construct of an internal working model of attachment. Children classified as secure in reunion, compared to those classified as insecure, were(More)
A new look at shyness in young children involves selecting for shyness, using criteria involving both natural and laboratory contexts, categorizing children (including a group between the two extremes), and including the sex of the child in analyses. Children of both sexes differed significantly across low, medium, and high shy groups, with negative mood,(More)
This study shows that relations between behavioral inhibition and cardiac activity may be clarified by identifying attachment status, whereas relations between security of attachment and cardiac activity may be clarified by identifying inhibition status. Assessments at 4.5 years (N = 126) included heart period (HP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA),(More)
Mothers interviewed in their homes provided information concerning their child's temperamental characteristics, mild behaviour problems and family interactions. The characteristics active, shy (approach/withdrawal; not settling in) and moody/intense were consistent from 42 to 50 months of age for both sexes. No simple sex differences appeared in these three(More)
The McMaster Model of Family Functioning defines seven dimensions, which may be assessed either by an observer applying a Clinical Rating Scale (CRS) to a semi-structured interview of the family and/or by family members completing a questionnaire, the Family Assessment Device (FAD). The present article applied both methods of assessment, as well as the(More)
Eight autumn-caught female chaffinches were injected with testosterone in their first spring. They were allowed to perch on a particular perch to produce a playback of a normal, male song. Both the course of their song development and the reinforcing effect of the playback song were comparable to that shown by a group of similarly-treated males.
Fearful behaviour, fears and worries of young children are central not only to normal development, but also to the development of anxiety disorders. In a community sample, consistency from age 4.5 to 7 years was significant for all measures of behavioural approach/withdrawal, as well as for the degree of reported fears and worries. Observed(More)