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We have compared the pharmacokinetics of bolus dose cocaine administration with that of its three most important metabolites; norcocaine, ecgonine methylester, and benzoylecgonine and assessed whether kinetics are dose dependent at two equimolar doses equivalent to cocaine hydrochloride 2.5 and 5 mg/kg respectively. Forty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
UNLABELLED There are limited data on the prognostic role of biomarkers in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We evaluated the prognostic value of high sensitivity TnT (hsTnT) and high-sensitivity interleukin-6 (hsIL6) in a large cohort of AF patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC) as both biomarkers have been associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE The accurate evaluation of patients with multiple injuries is logistically complex and time sensitive, and must be cost-effective. We hypothesize that computed tomographic (CT) scan of the upper cervical spine (occiput to C3 [Co-C3]) would add little to the initial evaluation of patients with multiple injuries who have altered mental status. (More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the time course of the bradycardic and hypotensive effects of esmolol. Ten patients undergoing craniotomy requiring hypotension were anesthetized with nitrous oxide and isoflurane. During steady state anesthesia, the response to an infusion of esmolol 500 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 for 90 s followed by 300(More)
The duration of the antagonism to neuromuscular blockade produced by pyridostigmine is prolonged in elderly patients, and a pharmacokinetic explanation was sought. Ten elderly (71-85 yr) and 10 younger (21-51 yr) patients were anesthetized with thiopental, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane and paralyzed with a combination of d-tubocurarine and pancuronium. When(More)
The effect of obesity on the disposition and action of vecuronium was studied in 14 surgical patients. After induction of anesthesia with thiopental and maintenance of anesthesia by inhalation of nitrous oxide and halothane, seven obese patients (93.4 +/- 13.9 kg, 166% +/- 30% of ideal body weight, mean +/- SD) and seven control patients (60.9 +/- 12.3 kg,(More)
Patients chronically receiving anticonvulsants have been reported to be resistant to the long-acting competitive neuromuscular blockers. This study examines the effects of atracurium and vecuronium on 100 neurosurgical patients; 50 receiving chronic phenytoin therapy (group I) and 50 controls (group II). During O2/N2O/halothane anesthesia, five patients in(More)
BACKGROUND Cisatracurium, one of ten stereoisomers that comprise atracurium, is more potent than atracurium and has less propensity to release histamine. This study compares the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cisatracurium in elderly and young patients. METHODS Twelve elderly (aged 65-82 yr) and 12 younger patients (aged 30-49 yr) were(More)
The effects of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of vecuronium in eight elderly patients aged 72-86 yr and eight younger adults aged 26-48 yr undergoing elective surgical procedures under nitrous oxide-fentanyl anesthesia were studied. Vecuronium (0.1 mg/kg) was given as an intravenous bolus, and the ulnar nerve was stimulated with a(More)
Recent reports have described resistance to pancuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in patients chronically receiving anticonvulsants. This study examines the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metocurine (MTC) in 12 patients undergoing craniotomy--six on chronic phenytoin therapy and six comparable controls. Each patient received MTC 0.2 mg/kg(More)