Joan M. Shields

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Cyclospora cayetanensis is a sporulating parasitic protozoan that infects the upper small intestinal tract. It has been identified as both a food and waterborne pathogen endemic in many developing countries. It is an important agent of Traveller's Diarrohea in developed countries and was responsible for numerous foodborne outbreaks in the United States and(More)
The essential component of any hypothesis of random or directed cell movement is the mechanism of cell polarity. In this paper we describe the polar behaviour of human neutrophil leucocytes in uniform concentrations of chemotactic factors both in suspension and while moving across surfaces. Neutrophils exposed to uniform concentrations of chemotactic(More)
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis have been found in swimming pool filter backwash during outbreaks. To determine baseline prevalence, we sampled pools not associated with outbreaks and found that of 160 sampled pools, 13 (8.1%) were positive for 1 or both parasites; 10 (6.2%) for Giardia sp., 2 (1.2%) for Cryptosporidium spp., and 1 (0.6%) for(More)
In this paper we propose that the constriction ring, a prominent feature of moving leucocytes, is a major source of locomotive force. Analysis of time-lapse films of lymphocytes in suspension and moving through three-dimensional collagen gels, demonstrated that the constriction ring was the morphological manifestation of a wave of circular contraction that(More)
A method is described which greatly simplifies the screening of compounds which are potentially chemotactic for neutrophil leucocytes. Neutrophils isolated from blood by a standardised procedure are greater than 95% spherical in morphology. Addition of chemotactic factors in isotropic, non-gradient, concentrations induces the spherical shape to become(More)
We developed an alternative nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) protocol for the detection of Cyclospora cayetanensis in environmental samples that obviates the need for microscopic examination. The RFLP method, with the restriction enzyme AluI, differentiates the amplified target sequence from C. cayetanensis from those that may(More)
The reaction of fibroblasts to the elastic properties of the substratum was studied using elastic collagen films. These films were stretched in one axis to give a substratum which was anisotropic in its elasticity and deformability. Analysis of the orientation of fibroblasts cultured on these substrata showed that they oriented along the axis of stretch(More)
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are often used to identify the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis in foods although little has been published regarding the efficacy of available DNA extraction methods. This study reviewed three commonly used commercial DNA extraction kits: FastDNA SPIN Kit for soil, QBiogene(More)
Cryptosporidium is a chlorine-resistant protozoan parasite and the etiological agent in many disinfected recreational water outbreaks. While previous studies have reported disinfection Ct values for Cryptosporidium parvum using sodium hypochlorite, these studies have employed conditions and procedures which are not ideal for establishing public health(More)