Joan F. Sattler

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Larvae of the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis induce ball-shaped galls on the stem of tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. Survival probability depends on gall size; in small galls the larva is vulnerable to parasitoid oviposition, whereas larvae in large galls are more frequently eaten by avian predators. Fly populations from 20 natural old fields in(More)
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