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The STAT1 transcription factor is activated in response to many cytokines and growth factors. To study the requirement for STAT1 in vivo, we disrupted the Stat1 gene in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in mice. Stat1(-1-)ES cells were unresponsive to interferon (IFN), but retained responsiveness to leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and remained LIF dependent(More)
Ideally, an oncolytic virus will replicate preferentially in malignant cells, have the ability to treat disseminated metastases, and ultimately be cleared by the patient. Here we present evidence that the attenuated vesicular stomatitis strains, AV1 and AV2, embody all of these traits. We uncover the mechanism by which these mutants are selectively(More)
Interferon (IFN) genes are among the earliest transcriptional responses to virus infection of mammalian cells. Although the regulation of the IFNbeta gene has been well characterized, the induction of the large family of IFNalpha genes has remained obscure. We report that the IFNalpha genes can be divided into two groups: an immediate-early response gene(More)
The NS1 protein is the only nonstructural protein encoded by influenza A virus. It has been proposed that the NS1 performs several regulatory functions during the viral replication cycle, including the regulation of synthesis, transport, splicing, and translation of mRNAs. Through the use of reverse genetics, a viable transfectant influenza A virus (delNS1)(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are produced in response to virus infection and induce an antiviral state in virtually all cell types. In addition to upregulating the transcription of genes that inhibit virus replication, type I (or -α/β) IFNs also act to orchestrate the adaptive immune response to virus infection. Recently a new family of antiviral cytokines, the type(More)
Interferon (IFN) induces gene expression by phosphorylating latent transcription factors of the STAT family. Two different STAT multimeric complexes that bind distinct enhancer elements are activated by IFN alpha and IFN gamma, dictated by the DNA-binding protein ISGF3 gamma p48. This protein, a member of the IFN regulatory factor (IFR) family, acts as an(More)
A morphometric analysis of normal Wistar rat adrenal medulla following perfusion fixation and Araldite embedding, was correlated with catecholamine levels on fresh tissue, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean volume of whole adrenal is 13.2 mm3 and the mean medullary volume 1.3 mm3. Volume density estimates showed that the medulla is(More)
We have studied the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in mice that are unable to respond to type I or II interferons due to a targeted disruption of the STAT1 gene. STAT1-/- animals are 100-fold more sensitive to lethal infection with influenza A/WSN/33 virus than are their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Virus replicated only in the lungs of WT(More)
The V protein of the Paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) is a multifunctional protein containing an N-terminal 164 residue domain that is shared with the P protein and a distinct C-terminal domain that is cysteine-rich and which is highly conserved among Paramyxoviruses. We report the recovery from Vero cells [interferon (IFN) nonproducing cells] of a(More)
IFNs protect from virus infection by inducing an antiviral state and by modulating the immune response. Using mice deficient in multiple aspects of IFN signaling, we found that type I and type II IFN play distinct although complementing roles in the resolution of influenza viral disease. Both types of IFN influenced the profile of cytokines produced by T(More)