Joan E. Durbin

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The STAT1 transcription factor is activated in response to many cytokines and growth factors. To study the requirement for STAT1 in vivo, we disrupted the Stat1 gene in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in mice. Stat1(-1-)ES cells were unresponsive to interferon (IFN), but retained responsiveness to leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and remained LIF dependent(More)
Interferon (IFN) genes are among the earliest transcriptional responses to virus infection of mammalian cells. Although the regulation of the IFNbeta gene has been well characterized, the induction of the large family of IFNalpha genes has remained obscure. We report that the IFNalpha genes can be divided into two groups: an immediate-early response gene(More)
Ideally, an oncolytic virus will replicate preferentially in malignant cells, have the ability to treat disseminated metastases, and ultimately be cleared by the patient. Here we present evidence that the attenuated vesicular stomatitis strains, AV1 and AV2, embody all of these traits. We uncover the mechanism by which these mutants are selectively(More)
The NS1 protein is the only nonstructural protein encoded by influenza A virus. It has been proposed that the NS1 performs several regulatory functions during the viral replication cycle, including the regulation of synthesis, transport, splicing, and translation of mRNAs. Through the use of reverse genetics, a viable transfectant influenza A virus (delNS1)(More)
NK cell cytotoxicity, IFN-gamma expression, proliferation, and accumulation are rapidly induced after murine CMV infections. Under these conditions, the responses were shown to be elicited in overlapping populations. Nevertheless, there were distinct signaling molecule requirements for induction of functions within the subsets. IL-12/STAT4 was critical for(More)
Inflammation likely has a role in the early genesis of certain malignancies. Interleukin (IL)-15, a proinflammatory cytokine and growth factor, is required for lymphocyte homeostasis. Intriguingly, the expression of IL-15 protein is tightly controlled by multiple posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we engineered a transgenic mouse to overexpress IL-15 by(More)
Formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine preparations have been shown to cause enhanced disease in naive hosts following natural infection. In this study we demonstrate a similar pattern of enhanced disease severity following primary RSV infection of IFN-nonresponsive STAT1(-/-) mice. STAT1(-/-) mice showed markedly increased illness(More)
We have studied the pathogenesis of influenza virus infection in mice that are unable to respond to type I or II interferons due to a targeted disruption of the STAT1 gene. STAT1-/- animals are 100-fold more sensitive to lethal infection with influenza A/WSN/33 virus than are their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Virus replicated only in the lungs of WT(More)
The type I and III interferon (IFN) families consist of cytokines rapidly induced during viral infection that confer antiviral protection on target cells and are critical components of innate immune responses and the transition to effective adaptive immunity. The regulation of their expression involves an intricate and stringently regulated signaling(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that is able to persist for decades in its host. HCMV has evolved protean countermeasures for anti-HCMV cellular immunity that facilitate establishment of persistence. Recently it has been shown that HCMV inhibits interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated MHC class II expression, but the mechanism for(More)