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The STAT1 transcription factor is activated in response to many cytokines and growth factors. To study the requirement for STAT1 in vivo, we disrupted the Stat1 gene in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in mice. Stat1(-1-)ES cells were unresponsive to interferon (IFN), but retained responsiveness to leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and remained LIF dependent(More)
A morphometric analysis of normal Wistar rat adrenal medulla following perfusion fixation and Araldite embedding, was correlated with catecholamine levels on fresh tissue, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean volume of whole adrenal is 13.2 mm3 and the mean medullary volume 1.3 mm3. Volume density estimates showed that the medulla is(More)
Inflammation likely has a role in the early genesis of certain malignancies. Interleukin (IL)-15, a proinflammatory cytokine and growth factor, is required for lymphocyte homeostasis. Intriguingly, the expression of IL-15 protein is tightly controlled by multiple posttranscriptional mechanisms. Here, we engineered a transgenic mouse to overexpress IL-15 by(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that is able to persist for decades in its host. HCMV has evolved protean countermeasures for anti-HCMV cellular immunity that facilitate establishment of persistence. Recently it has been shown that HCMV inhibits interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-stimulated MHC class II expression, but the mechanism for(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of severe lower airway disease in infants and young children, but no safe and effective RSV vaccine is yet available. The difficulties involved in RSV vaccine development were recognized in an early vaccine trial, when children immunized with a formalin-inactivated virus preparation experienced enhanced(More)
T-bet and STAT1 regulate IFN-gamma gene transcription in CD4+ T cells, which mediate protection against Leishmania. Here we show that T-bet and STAT1 are required for the induction of an efficient Th1 response during Leishmania donovani infection, but they play distinct roles in determining disease outcome. Both STAT1(-/-) and T-bet(-/-) mice failed to(More)
Inactivation of p27 Kip1 is implicated in tumorigenesis and has both prognostic and treatment-predictive values for many types of human cancer. The transcription factor Stat1 is essential for innate immunity and tumor immunosurveillance through its ability to act downstream of interferons. Herein, we demonstrate that Stat1 functions as a suppressor of Ras(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. While the primary infection is the most serious, reinfection of the upper airway throughout life is the rule. Although relatively little is known about either RSV infection of the upper respiratory tract or host mucosal immunity to RSV,(More)
The respiratory tract is a major mucosal site for microorganism entry into the body, and type I interferon (IFN) and dendritic cells constitute a first line of defense against viral infections. We have analyzed the interaction between a model DNA virus, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and type I IFN during lung infection of mice. Our data show that murine(More)
Type I (IFN-α/β) and type III (IFN-λ) interferons (IFNs) exert shared antiviral activities through distinct receptors. However, their relative importance for antiviral protection of different organ systems against specific viruses remains to be fully explored. We used mouse strains deficient in type-specific IFN signaling, STAT1 and Rag2 to dissect distinct(More)