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Cells in the renal inner medulla are normally exposed to extraordinarily high levels of NaCl and urea. The osmotic stress causes numerous perturbations because of the hypertonic effect of high NaCl and the direct denaturation of cellular macromolecules by high urea. High NaCl and urea elevate reactive oxygen species, cause cytoskeletal rearrangement,(More)
High NaCl activates the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element-binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP), resulting in increased transcription of several protective genes, including the glycine betaine/gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter (BGT1). High NaCl damages DNA, and DNA damage activates ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)(More)
Hypertonicity-induced binding of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP to its cognate DNA element, ORE/TonE, is associated with increased transcription of several osmotically regulated genes. Previously, it was found that hypertonicity rapidly causes nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of TonEBP/OREBP and, more slowly, increases TonEBP/OREBP(More)
Hypertonicity activates the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP), resulting in increased expression of genes involved in osmoprotective accumulation of organic osmolytes, including glycine betaine, and in increased expression of osmoprotective heat shock proteins. Our previous studies(More)
In tests of osmotic tolerance of renal inner medullary cells in tissue culture, osmolality has usually been increased in a single step, whereas in vivo the increase occurs gradually over several hours. We previously found that more passage 2 mouse inner medullary epithelial (p2mIME) cells survive a linear increase in NaCl and urea from 640 to 1,640(More)
High extracellular NaCl, such as in the renal medulla, can perturb and even kill cells, but cells mount protective responses that enable them to survive and function. Many high-NaCl-induced perturbations and protective responses are known, but the signaling pathways involved are less clear. Change in protein phosphorylation is a common mode of cell(More)
In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin increases osmotic water permeability (P(f)) by triggering trafficking of aquaporin-2 vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. We investigated the role of vasopressin-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in this process. In isolated inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs), vasopressin (0.1 nm) and(More)
Cells of almost all organisms accumulate organic osmolytes when exposed to hyperosmolality, most often in the form of high salt or urea. In this review, we discuss 1) how the organic osmolytes protect; 2) the identity of osmolytes in Archaea, bacteria, yeast, plants, marine animals, and mammals; 3) the mechanisms by which they are accumulated; 4) sensors of(More)
High NaCl activates the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP) by increasing its abundance and transactivation, the latter signaled by a variety of protein kinases. In addition, high NaCl causes TonEBP/OREBP to translocate into the nucleus, but little is known about the signals directing(More)
Elevated temperature rapidly increases expression of genes for heat shock proteins (HSP), including HSP-70. The response is presumably triggered by denaturation of cell proteins and helps in their renaturation. Hypertonicity may also denature proteins, but the protective response, which is accumulation of compatible organic osmolytes [including betaine and(More)