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Cells in the renal inner medulla are normally exposed to extraordinarily high levels of NaCl and urea. The osmotic stress causes numerous perturbations because of the hypertonic effect of high NaCl and the direct denaturation of cellular macromolecules by high urea. High NaCl and urea elevate reactive oxygen species, cause cytoskeletal rearrangement,(More)
High NaCl activates the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element-binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP), resulting in increased transcription of several protective genes, including the glycine betaine/gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter (BGT1). High NaCl damages DNA, and DNA damage activates ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)(More)
Hypertonicity-induced binding of the transcription factor TonEBP/OREBP to its cognate DNA element, ORE/TonE, is associated with increased transcription of several osmotically regulated genes. Previously, it was found that hypertonicity rapidly causes nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of TonEBP/OREBP and, more slowly, increases TonEBP/OREBP(More)
Sorbitol accumulates in renal medullary cells by synthesis from glucose in a reaction catalyzed by aldose reductase. Medullary sodium and urea are high and vary with urinary concentration. Sorbitol varies similarly, consistent with its role as a compatible intracellular organic osmolyte. We measured renal medullary sodium, urea, sorbitol, aldose reductase(More)
In tests of osmotic tolerance of renal inner medullary cells in tissue culture, osmolality has usually been increased in a single step, whereas in vivo the increase occurs gradually over several hours. We previously found that more passage 2 mouse inner medullary epithelial (p2mIME) cells survive a linear increase in NaCl and urea from 640 to 1,640(More)
Hypertonicity activates the transcription factor tonicity-responsive enhancer/osmotic response element binding protein (TonEBP/OREBP), resulting in increased expression of genes involved in osmoprotective accumulation of organic osmolytes, including glycine betaine, and in increased expression of osmoprotective heat shock proteins. Our previous studies(More)
High extracellular NaCl, such as in the renal medulla, can perturb and even kill cells, but cells mount protective responses that enable them to survive and function. Many high-NaCl-induced perturbations and protective responses are known, but the signaling pathways involved are less clear. Change in protein phosphorylation is a common mode of cell(More)
Intertidal worms such as the nemertine,P. spiralis, and the oligochaete,C. arenarius, are exposed to fluctuating salinity conditions in their natural habitat. Both species are volume regulators. To determine the influence of neurosecretory and neuroglandular mechanisms on regulatory volume increase (RVI) in hyperosmotic media, control and decerebrated worms(More)
Cells of almost all organisms accumulate organic osmolytes when exposed to hyperosmolality, most often in the form of high salt or urea. In this review, we discuss 1) how the organic osmolytes protect; 2) the identity of osmolytes in Archaea, bacteria, yeast, plants, marine animals, and mammals; 3) the mechanisms by which they are accumulated; 4) sensors of(More)
In the renal collecting duct, vasopressin increases osmotic water permeability (P(f)) by triggering trafficking of aquaporin-2 vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. We investigated the role of vasopressin-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in this process. In isolated inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs), vasopressin (0.1 nm) and(More)