Joan Borsten

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This article will touch on theories, scientific research and conjecture about the evolutionary genetics of the brain function and the impact of genetic variants called polymorphisms on drug-seeking behavior. It will cover the neurological basis of pleasure-seeking and addiction, which affects multitudes in a global atmosphere where people are seeking(More)
BACKGROUND While numerous studies support the efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the stabilization and maintenance of opioid dependence, clinically significant opioid withdrawal symptoms occur upon tapering and cessation of dosage. METHODS We present a case study of a 35 year old Caucasian female (Krissie) who was prescribed increasing dosages of(More)
Consensus in the most recent literature indicates that psychoactive "bath salts" is a relatively new drug-combination that was added to Schedule I classification in October 2011. Common ingredients include the cathinone analogs: mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). The mechanism of action of these synthetic cathinone analogs has not yet been(More)
This article co-authored by a number of scientists, ASAM physicians, clinicians, treatment center owners, geneticists, neurobiologists, psychologists, social workers, criminologists, nurses, nutritionist, and students, is dedicated to all the people who have lost loved ones in substance-abuse and "reward deficiency syndrome" related tragedies. Why are we(More)
In accord with the new definition of addiction published by American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) it is well-known that individuals who present to a treatment center involved in chemical dependency or other documented reward dependence behaviors have impaired brain reward circuitry. They have hypodopaminergic function due to genetic and/or(More)
Mindful of the new evolutionary ideas related to an emerging scientific focus known as omics, we propose that spiritual, social, and political behaviors may be tied in part to inheritable reward gene polymorphisms, as has been demonstrated for the addictions. If so, analyses of gene polymorphisms may assist in predicting liberalism or conservatism in(More)
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