Joan A Conway

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Viral protein X (Vpx) is a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus accessory protein that is packaged into virions in molar amounts equivalent to Gag proteins. To delineate the processes of virus assembly that mediate Vpx packaging, we used a recombinant vaccinia virus-T7 RNA polymerase system to facilitate Gag protein(More)
Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a(More)
All presently available replication-competent proviral clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are derived from cell culture-amplified virus. Since tissue culture is highly selective for viral strains with an in vitro growth advantage, such clones may not be representative of the biologically relevant virus present in vivo. In this study, we(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase protein (IN) is essential for integration of the viral DNA into host cell chromosomes. Since IN is expressed and assembled into virions as part of the 160-kDa Gag-Pol precursor polyprotein and catalyzes integration of the provirus in infected cells as a mature 32-kDa protein, mutations in IN are(More)
BACKGROUND Differential protein targeting by HIV-specific CD8 T cells is associated with disparate plasma viral loads; however, it is unclear if the quality of these responses differs depending upon the specificity of the targeted epitopes. METHODS We examined HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in HIV-infected adolescents carrying either an HLA class I(More)
Mutation rates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomes have been estimated using purified reverse transcriptase or single-round infection system. Since small sequences were used as templates, the overall mutation rates could only be extrapolated and the biological significance of mutations is unknown. For direct estimation of HIV-1 mutation(More)
The expression and incorporation of retroviral enzymes into virions in the form of Gag/Pol precursor polyproteins is believed to be important for the assembly of infectious viral particles. HIV-1 encodes a 160 kDa Gag/Pol precursor that includes Gag, protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN). We have developed the use of HIV accessory(More)
Viral protein X (vpx) is a virion-associated HIV-2/SIV accessory protein that enhances viral infectivity and replication in natural target cells. To investigate whether other viral components affect its biosynthesis, subcellular localization, and virion incorporation, we expressed HIV-2 vpx in a mammalian cell system and examined its transport and packaging(More)
The genomes of HIV and SIV are complex and contain several accessory genes which modulate viral replication and pathogenicity. One of these genes, vpx, is unique to the HIV-2/SIV group of viruses and encodes a virion-associated protein of unknown function. To examine the function of vpx, we constructed a vpx-deficient HIV-2 proviral clone and characterized(More)
The HIV-1 p51/p66 reverse transcriptase (RT) heterodimer interface comprises, in part, intermolecular interaction of the loop region between beta-strands 7 and 8 (beta7-beta8 loop) in the p51 fingers subdomain with the p66 palm subdomain. In this study, for the first time in the context of infectious HIV-1 particles, we analyzed the contribution of amino(More)