Joah L. Williams

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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse both are negatively associated with health, and alcohol misuse may mediate the relationship between PTSD and functional health outcomes. The present study tested for such mediation using self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, hazardous alcohol use, and health functioning in 151 U.S. veterans (136 men(More)
Two experiments explored the role of vicarious " self " explanations in facilitating student learning gains during computer-presented instruction. In Exp. 1, college students with low or high knowledge on Newton's laws were tested in four conditions: (a) monologue (M), (b) questions (Q), (c) explanation (E), and (d) question þ explanation (Q þ E). Those(More)
The current study investigated the role of discourse scaffolds embedded into vicarious learning environments in classroom learning. In the current study, one of three vicarious learning conditions with varying levels of discourse scaffolds preceded standard instruction on seven classroom days. An explanation condition included deep questions, course content(More)
Hazardous drinking among US Military combat veterans is an important public health issue. Because recent combat veterans are difficult to engage in specialty mental health and substance abuse care, there is a need for opportunistic interventions administered in settings visited by recent combat veterans such as primary care. This paper describes a brief(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of 2 brief interventions for alcohol misuse in a sample of combat veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. METHOD Participants were 68 combat veterans (91.2% male; 64.7% White, 27.9% Black) with a mean age of 32.31 years (SD = 8.84) who screened positive for hazardous drinking in a Veterans(More)
Although DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include three primary symptom clusters, recent evidence from confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the latent structure of PTSD is better represented by four factors, which will likely be reflected in the upcoming DSM-5. Given this likely transition from three to four(More)
Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative(More)
INTRODUCTION The most common psychological and cognitive sequelae associated with deployments to Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom) are mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). High rates of PTSD are often observed among Veterans with a history of mTBI, and persistent(More)
Many adults who have lost a loved one to violent death suffer from depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complicated grief. Limited research has examined structured group interventions for violent death survivors or characteristics (e.g., types of loss, quality and type of relationship with the deceased) that may impact response to(More)
This study aims to explore rates of bereavement-related mental health outcomes and diagnostic comorbidity along with the associations between mental health outcomes, perceived social support, knowledge of services, and service use among a diverse sample of 47 survivors 2 years post loss. Findings are consistent with prior studies in that homicide is(More)