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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), an uncommon tumor, is occurring with increasing frequency. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and cranial radiotherapy (RT) usually gives a dramatic initial response, but median survival is only 10 to 18 months. Chemotherapy is more successful in comparable systemic lymphoma and has been employed for(More)
The mechanisms underlying neoplastic epithelial cell killing by ionizing radiation are largely unknown. We discovered a novel response to radiation manifested by autophagy and the development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). Acidification of AVO was mediated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase. Staining with the lysosomotropic agent acridine orange enabled us to(More)
PURPOSE Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), formerly rare, is being seen with increased frequency among apparently immunocompetent patients. Conventional treatment has consisted of whole-brain radiotherapy (RT) and corticosteroids, with a median survival of 15 to 18 months and a 3% to 4% 5-year survival. Chemotherapy has been useful in the treatment of recurrent(More)
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a mitogen and a survival factor in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. It acts as an angiogenesis factor in breast cancer, but paradoxically inhibits proliferation in several breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated the effects of bFGF on the survival of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in order to(More)
Salvage of patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin disease (HD) with high-dose chemoradiotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) results in event-free survival (EFS) rates from 30% to 50%. Unfortunately, the reduction in toxicity associated with modern supportive care has improved EFS by only 5% to 10% and has not reduced the(More)
Freshly isolated human neutrophils were investigated for their ability to degrade heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured corneal and vascular endothelial cells. The ECM was metabolically labeled with Na2(35S)O4 and labeled degradation products were analyzed by gel filtration over Sepharose 6B.(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment for primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL) with chemotherapy and radiotherapy has resulted in improved survival, but some patients develop neurologic deterioration that represents a treatment-related toxic effect. This delayed neurotoxicity has been poorly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. (More)
The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on human breast cancer cells was studied in vitro. Exposure to bFGF resulted in significant growth inhibition, decreased DNA synthesis, and accumulation of cells in G0-G1. The IC50 for growth inhibition in MCF-7 cells was 50 pg/ml, and it was abrogated by neutralizing antibodies against bFGF. Inhibition of(More)
All-trans retinoic acid (tRA) inhibits growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells in vitro, and a variety of retinoids inhibit development of breast cancer in animal models. 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) is a naturally occurring high affinity ligand for the retinoid X receptors, as well as the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Whether(More)