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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
The mechanisms underlying neoplastic epithelial cell killing by ionizing radiation are largely unknown. We discovered a novel response to radiation manifested by autophagy and the development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). Acidification of AVO was mediated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase. Staining with the lysosomotropic agent acridine orange enabled us to(More)
Extramedullary (EM) manifestations of acute leukemia include a wide variety of clinically significant phenomena that often pose therapeutic dilemmas. Myeloid sarcoma (MS) and leukemia cutis (LC) represent 2 well-known EM manifestations with a range of clinical presentations. MS (also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma) is a rare EM tumor of immature(More)
BACKGROUND Despite several investigations, second malignancy risks (SMR) following radiotherapy alone (RT), chemotherapy alone (CT) and combined chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) remain controversial. PATIENTS AND METHODS We sought individual patient data from randomised trials comparing RT versus CRT, CT versus CRT, RT versus CT or(More)
Radiation-induced inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive pathway and its effect on the cellular response to radiation were studied in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Both radiation and rapamycin shared molecular targets and induced similar physiologic responses. Each of these treatments increased immunostaining of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in(More)
BACKGROUND High-dose methotrexate (MTX) and whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) prolong survival in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) patients but have been associated with delayed neurotoxicity. Consequently, patients are often treated with chemotherapy alone, and WBRT is deferred until relapse. METHODS We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the(More)
Patients with relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who achieve complete response (CR) before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) generally have better outcomes than those who achieve only partial response (PR). We investigated whether adding rituximab to the ifosfamide-carboplatin-etoposide (ICE) chemotherapy regimen(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment for primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL) with chemotherapy and radiotherapy has resulted in improved survival, but some patients develop neurologic deterioration that represents a treatment-related toxic effect. This delayed neurotoxicity has been poorly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are unknown. (More)
High-dose chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) can prolong survival in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) patients, but is often associated with clinically significant cognitive decline. In this study we assessed neuropsychological functioning prospectively in newly diagnosed PCNSL patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose(More)
Second-line chemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) cures less than half of the patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Prognostic models capable of predicting outcome are essential. In 3 sequential clinical trials, conducted from January 1993 to August 2000, we(More)