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Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
The mechanisms underlying neoplastic epithelial cell killing by ionizing radiation are largely unknown. We discovered a novel response to radiation manifested by autophagy and the development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO). Acidification of AVO was mediated by the vacuolar H+-ATPase. Staining with the lysosomotropic agent acridine orange enabled us to(More)
Salvage of patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin disease (HD) with high-dose chemoradiotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) results in event-free survival (EFS) rates from 30% to 50%. Unfortunately, the reduction in toxicity associated with modern supportive care has improved EFS by only 5% to 10% and has not reduced the(More)
PURPOSE Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), formerly rare, is being seen with increased frequency among apparently immunocompetent patients. Conventional treatment has consisted of whole-brain radiotherapy (RT) and corticosteroids, with a median survival of 15 to 18 months and a 3% to 4% 5-year survival. Chemotherapy has been useful in the treatment of recurrent(More)
All-trans retinoic acid (tRA) inhibits growth of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells in vitro, and a variety of retinoids inhibit development of breast cancer in animal models. 9-cis retinoic acid (9-cis RA) is a naturally occurring high affinity ligand for the retinoid X receptors, as well as the retinoic acid receptors (RARs). Whether(More)
PURPOSE The use of preradiotherapy (RT) methotrexate (MTX) has improved disease control and survival in patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). The reported protocol was designed to optimize and enhance the chemotherapeutic component of treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty-two patients were treated with five cycles of high-dose MTX 3.5 g/m(2),(More)
PURPOSE We have previously reported on 31 patients with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) treated between 1986 and 1992 with methotrexate (MTX), cranial radiotherapy (RT), and high-dose cytarabine who remained free of disease longer than historical controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS We performed a follow-up analysis of our original cohort and now report their(More)
Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of(More)
PURPOSE Our goals were to evaluate the safety of adding rituximab to methotrexate (MTX)-based chemotherapy for primary CNS lymphoma, determine whether additional cycles of induction chemotherapy improve the complete response (CR) rate, and examine effectiveness and toxicity of reduced-dose whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) after CR. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
Extramedullary (EM) manifestations of acute leukemia include a wide variety of clinically significant phenomena that often pose therapeutic dilemmas. Myeloid sarcoma (MS) and leukemia cutis (LC) represent 2 well-known EM manifestations with a range of clinical presentations. MS (also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma) is a rare EM tumor of immature(More)