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There is evidence that the "acid mantle" of the stratum corneum is important for both permeability barrier formation and cutaneous antimicrobial defense. The origin of the acidic pH of the stratum corneum remains conjectural, however. Both passive (e.g., eccrine/sebaceous secretions, proteolytic) and active (e.g., proton pumps) mechanisms have been(More)
Activators of liver X receptors (LXR) stimulate epidermal differentiation and development, but inhibit keratinocyte proliferation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of two oxysterols, 22(R)-hydroxy-cholesterol (22ROH) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OH), and a nonsterol activator of LXR, GW3965, were examined utilizing models of irritant and(More)
Early postnatal life is a period of active functional reorganization and cutaneous physiological adaptation to the extrauterine environment. Skin as the outermost organ of mammalians is endowed of multiple functions such as protection, secretion, absorption and thermoregulation. Birth stimulates the epidermal barrier maturation and the skin surface(More)
BACKGROUND Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with changes in stratum corneum (SC) structure and function. The breakdown of epidermal barrier function in AD is associated with changes in corneocyte size and maturation, desquamation, lipid profiles, and some protease activities. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was: (i)(More)
Glycerol is a trihydroxy alcohol that has been included for many years in topical dermatological preparations. In addition, endogenous glycerol plays a role in skin hydration, cutaneous elasticity and epidermal barrier repair. The aquaporin-3 transport channel and lipid metabolism in the pilosebaceous unit have been evidenced as potential pathways for(More)
BACKGROUND Keratinocytes participate in initiation and amplification of T-cell-mediated skin diseases. During these disorders, histamine can be released from both residents skin cells and immigrating leukocytes, and can affect the functions of dendritic cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Little information is available on the effects of histamine on(More)
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by pigment dilution and prolonged bleeding time. At least 15 mutant mouse strains have been classified as models of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Some of the genes are implicated in intracellular vesicle trafficking: budding, targeting, and secretion. Many of the Hermansky-Pudlak(More)
Calibration of devices measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is in intensive discussion. Comparative studies revealed that comparable measuring systems, e.g. open and closed chamber systems, do not always deliver the same results, even when expressing the measured values in SI units, namely in g/m(2)/h. Therefore, adequate and reliable calibration(More)
There is considerable evidence for specific pathology of lipid metabolism in schizophrenia, affecting polyunsaturated fatty acids and in particular sphingolipids. These deficits are assumed to interfere with neuronal membrane functioning and the development and maintenance of myelin sheaths. Recent studies suggest that some of these lipid pathologies might(More)
Sensitive skin is a frequent complaint in the general population, in patients, and among subjects suffering from itch. The International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) decided to initiate a special interest group (SIG) on sensitive skin. Using the Delphi method, sensitive skin was defined as "A syndrome defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations(More)