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Vitamin A (retinol) and its natural derivatives are required for many physiological processes. The activity of retinoids is thought to be mediated by interactions with two subfamilies of nuclear retinoic acid receptors, RAR and RXR. The RARs bind all-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) with high affinity and alter gene expression as a consequence of this direct(More)
OBJECTIVES Presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a diagnostic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, up to 10% of patients were OCB negative in routine laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is at least an oligoclonal restriction of intrathecal antibody synthesis against measles, rubella(More)
BACKGROUND Glatiramer acetate (GA) and interferon-beta (INFb) are first-line disease modifying drugs for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Treatment with INFb is associated with a significant increase in health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in the first 12 months. It is not known whether HR-QoL increases during treatment with GA. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a CNS disorder of putative autoimmune aetiology, which is clinically characterized by severe rigidity and spasms. In most cases, SPS is associated with serum antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-Ab). Recent studies suggested that GAD-Ab might be directly involved in the pathogenesis of SPS.(More)
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