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During walking, the six legs of a stick insect can be coordinated in different temporal sequences or gaits. Leg coordination in each gait is controlled and stabilized by coordinating mechanisms that affect the action of the segmental neuronal networks for walking pattern generation. At present, the motor program for single walking legs in the absence of(More)
A general feature of motor patterns for locomotion is their cyclic and alternating organization. In walking, for example, rhythmic activity in leg motoneurons innervating antagonistic muscles of a joint is primarily antiphasic within each cycle. We investigate which role central pattern generating networks play in the generation of leg motoneuron activity(More)
Locomotion requires the coordination of movements across body segments, which in walking animals is expressed as gaits. We studied the underlying neural mechanisms of this coordination in a semi-intact walking preparation of the stick insect Carausius morosus. During walking of a single front leg on a treadmill, leg motoneuron (MN) activity tonically(More)
This paper focuses on two aspects of a human robot interaction scenario: Detection and tracking of moving objects , e.g., persons is necessary for localizing possible interaction partners and reconstruction of the surroundings can be used for navigation purposes and room categorization. Although these processes can be addressed independent from each other,(More)
After 3 and 12 months of isolation rearing of rats, sensitivity of single neurons to microiontophoretically applied transmitters as well as neuronal spontaneous activity are analysed in striatum, cortex, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and nucleus raphis medialis. It is demonstrated that regulation of transmitter sensitivity, as well as spontaneous activity,(More)
Imidacloprid, sulfoxaflor and two experimental sulfoximine insecticides caused generally depressive symptoms in stick insects, characterized by stillness and weakness, while also variably inducing postural changes such as persistent ovipositor opening, leg flexion or extension and abdomen bending that could indicate excitation of certain neural circuits. We(More)
The supplementation of creatine (Cr) has a marked neuroprotective effect in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases. This has been assigned to the known bioenergetic, anti-apoptotic, anti-excitotoxic, and anti-oxidant properties of Cr. As aging and neurodegeneration share pathophysiological pathways, we investigated the effect of oral Cr supplementation(More)
This paper presents the application of a kernel particle filter for 3D body tracking in a video stream acquired from a single uncalibrated camera. Using intensity-based and color-based cues as well as an articulated 3D body model with shape represented by cylinders, a real-time body tracking in monocular cluttered image sequences has been realized. The(More)
The operational basis for the generation of a functional motor output during walking is formed by the interaction between central pattern generating networks, local feedback from sensory neurons about movements and forces generated in the locomotor organs and coordinating signals from neighboring segments or appendages. This review primarily addresses the(More)