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The olfactory lobes of crustaceans and the antennal lobes of insects are the primary olfactory brain centers in Tetraconata. Recent publications considered the apparent lack of olfactory centers in several crustacean and insect taxa and structural differences in the organization of olfactory and antennal lobes as evidence for an independent origin of both(More)
In the mature olfactory systems of most organisms that possess a sense of smell, synapses between olfactory receptor neurons and central neurons occur in specialized neuropil structures called glomeruli. The development of olfactory glomeruli has been studied particularly heavily in the antennal lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. In the current study, we(More)
Lepidopterans like the giant sphinx moth Manduca sexta are known for their conspicuous sexual dimorphism in the olfactory system, which is especially pronounced in the antennae and in the antennal lobe, the primary integration center of odor information. Even minute scents of female pheromone are detected by male moths, facilitated by a huge array of(More)
Neuropeptides and protein hormones are ancient molecules that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The whole genome sequence from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, along with those from other insect species, provides an opportunity to study the evolution of the genes encoding neuropeptide and protein hormones. We identified 41 of these genes in the(More)
During metamorphosis of Manduca sexta, defined sets of neurons show a dramatic accumulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Although many of these cells show low but detectable levels of cGMP during specific developmental windows, these levels are enhanced dramatically during dissection of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of these(More)
The antennal lobe is the primary processing center for olfactory information in insects. To understand further the neural circuitry of this brain area, we have investigated the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its colocalization with neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. Immunocytochemical experiments with(More)
The fruitfly, Drosophila, is dependent on its olfactory sense in food search and reproduction. Processing of odorant information takes place in the antennal lobes, the primary olfactory center in the insect brain. Besides classical neurotransmitters, earlier studies have indicated the presence of a few neuropeptides in the olfactory system. In the present(More)
In many insect species olfaction is a key sensory modality. However, examination of the chemical ecology of insects has focussed up to now on insects living above ground. Evidence for behavioral responses to chemical cues in the soil other than CO(2) is scarce and the role played by olfaction in the process of finding host roots below ground is not yet(More)
During metamorphosis, the insect nervous system undergoes considerable remodeling: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. To understand further the mechanisms involved in transforming larval to adult tissue we have mapped the metamorphic changes in a particularly well established brain area, the antennal lobe of the(More)
In the moth, Manduca sexta, 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is transiently elevated during adult development in about 100 neurons of the antennal lobe. We demonstrate that nearly all of these neurons are local interneurons of the lateral cluster I, that their capacity to show a strong cGMP response during development is regulated by the steroid hormone(More)