Joachim Hoffmann

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Visual stimuli (primes) presented too briefly to be consciously identified can nevertheless affect responses to subsequent stimuli - an instance of unconscious cognition. There is a lively debate as to whether such priming effects originate from unconscious semantic processing of the primes or from reactivation of learned motor responses that conscious(More)
Recent studies reported converging evidence for action-effect associations if participants adopted an intention-based action control mode in free choice conditions, whereas no evidence for action-effect associations was found when participants adopted a stimulus-based mode in forced choice conditions. However, it is not yet clear whether action control(More)
Tones were introduced into a serial reaction time (SRT) task to serve as redundant response effects. Experiment 1 showed that the tones improved serial learning with a 10-element stimulus sequence, but only if the tone effects were mapped onto the responses contingently. Experiment 2 demonstrated that switching to noncontingent response-effect mapping(More)
This study investigated the impact of contingent action effects on response production. In Experiment 1 responses of varying intensity were initiated faster when contingently followed by auditory effects of corresponding rather than of noncorresponding intensity. This response-effect (R-E) compatibility influence was robust with respect to practice, and it(More)
When a target requires different responses to a relevant and to an irrelevant task in a task-switching paradigm, there is response conflict. This target-induced response conflict was combined with conflict caused by a subliminally presented prime presented prior to the target. We found that target-related conflict reduced prime-induced conflict effects(More)
Previous research has shown that subliminally presented stimuli accelerate or delay responses afforded by supraliminally presented stimuli. Our experiments extend these findings by showing that unconscious stimuli even affect free choices between responses. Thus, actions that are phenomenally experienced as freely chosen are influenced without the actor(More)
Expertise in a certain stimulus domain enhances perceptual capabilities. In the present article, the authors investigate whether expertise improves perceptual processing to an extent that allows complex visual stimuli to bias behavior unconsciously. Expert chess players judged whether a target chess configuration entailed a checking configuration. These(More)
Participants performed a serial reaction time task, responding to either asterisks presented at varying screen locations or centrally presented letters. Stimulus presentation followed a fixed second-order conditional sequence. Each keypress in the experimental groups produced a contingent, key-specific tone effect. The critical variation concerned the(More)
In four experiments either a short or a long foreperiod preceded the presentation of one of two targets, presented either in the center of the screen (Experiment 1) or at one of two locations (Experiments 2-4). Participants were to identify the presented target by pressing a left or a right button as quickly as possible. In Experiment 1, each of the two(More)