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One of the hallmarks of auditory neurons in vivo is spontaneous activity that occurs even in the absence of any sensory stimuli. Sound-evoked bursts of discharges are thus embedded within this background of random firing. The calyx of Held synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) has been characterized in vitro as a fast relay that(More)
We measured synaptic responses to complex stimulus trains in the calyx of Held and used the data to test how well several vesicle-release models could capture the observed dynamics. We tested stimulation protocols consisting of Poisson-distributed activity with periodically changing mean frequencies, trains with constant inter spike intervals, and stimulus(More)
Virtual reality (VR) environments are increasingly used to study spatial navigation in rodents. So far behavioral paradigms in virtual realities have been limited to linear tracks or open fields. However, little is known whether rodents can learn to navigate in more complex virtual spaces. We used a VR setup with a spherical treadmill but no head-fixation,(More)
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