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One of the hallmarks of auditory neurons in vivo is spontaneous activity that occurs even in the absence of any sensory stimuli. Sound-evoked bursts of discharges are thus embedded within this background of random firing. The calyx of Held synapse in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) has been characterized in vitro as a fast relay that(More)
We measured synaptic responses to complex stimulus trains in the calyx of Held and used the data to test how well several vesicle-release models could capture the observed dynamics. We tested stimulation protocols consisting of Poisson-distributed activity with periodically changing mean frequencies, trains with constant inter spike intervals, and stimulus(More)
Virtual reality (VR) environments are increasingly used to study spatial navigation in rodents. So far behavioral paradigms in virtual realities have been limited to linear tracks or open fields. However, little is known whether rodents can learn to navigate in more complex virtual spaces. We used a VR setup with a spherical treadmill but no head-fixation,(More)
We establish a lipid monolayer supported by a polymer interface that offers advantages over conventional solid-supported membranes for determining the frictional drag at the membrane-protein interface as well as for electric field manipulation of membrane-anchored proteins. Polymer-supported monolayers with functional lipid anchors allow for the specific(More)
We show how cross-phase modulation between two pulses, combined with optimal pulse shaping at the input of a dielectric medium, can be used to generate nearly single-cycle pulses that are tunable from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared at the output of the medium, precompensating for dispersion to all orders.
Eflornithine-HCl (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, blocks polyamine synthesis and has demonstrated antitumor activity in cell culture and animal tumor models. This phase I study was designed to determine and compare toxicity and the maximally tolerated dose of a 4-day course of DFMO given to patients(More)
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