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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication requires the expression of two classes of viral mRNA. The early class of HIV-1 transcripts is fully spliced and encodes viral regulatory gene products. The functional expression of one of these nuclear regulatory proteins, termed Rev (formerly Art or Trs), induces the cytoplasmic expression of the(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a nuclear trans-activator, termed Rev, that is required for the expression of the viral structural proteins and, hence, for viral replication. The Rev protein acts posttranscriptionally to induce the sequence-specific nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 mRNA species that are otherwise excluded from the cell(More)
Nuclear export of proteins containing leucine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) is mediated by the export receptor CRM1/exportin1. However, additional protein factors interacting with leucine-rich NESs have been described. Here, we investigate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev-mediated nuclear export and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV)(More)
The pathogenic human retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes two trans-acting nuclear proteins, tat and rev, whose functional expression is essential for viral replication in vitro. The tat protein greatly enhances the expression of both structural and regulatory genes of HIV-1 (linked to the viral long-terminal-repeat promoter(More)
Expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 structural proteins requires both the viral Rev trans-activator and its cis-acting RNA target sequence, the Rev response element (RRE). The RRE has been mapped to a conserved region of the HIV-1 env gene and is predicted to form a complex, highly stable RNA stem-loop structure. Site-directed mutagenesis was(More)
Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A(eIF-5A) is a cellular cofactor require d for the function of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Rev trans-activator protein. The majority of a set of eIF-5A mutants did not support growth of yeast cells having an inactivated genomic copy of eIF-5A, indicating that the introduced mutation eliminated eIF-5A(More)
Two evolutionarily distinct families of human retroviruses, the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and the human T-cell leukaemia viruses (HTLV), have been defined (reviewed in ref. 1). Although these virus groups share tropism for human CD4+ T cells, they differ markedly in primary sequence, genetic organization and disease association (AIDS versus adult(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), nature's adjuvant, must mature to sensitize T cells. However, although the maturation process is essential, it is not yet fully understood at the molecular level. In this study, we investigated the course of expression of the unique hypusine-containing protein eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A), which is part of a particular RNA(More)
The Rex trans-regulatory protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is required for the nuclear export of incompletely spliced and unspliced viral mRNAs and is therefore essential for virus replication. Rex is a nuclear phosphoprotein that directly binds to its cis-acting Rex response element RNA target sequence and constantly shuttles between(More)
Nuclear export of proteins containing leu-cine-rich nuclear export signals (NESs) is mediated by the export receptor CRM1/exportin1. However, additional protein factors interacting with leucine-rich NESs have been described. Here, we investigate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev-mediated nuclear export and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV)(More)
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