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A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator of PLD, cortical microtubules were released from the plasma(More)
Enhanced cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins are widely used for dual color imaging and protein-protein interaction studies based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Use of these fluorescent proteins can be limited by their thermosensitivity, dim fluorescence, and tendency for aggregation. Here we report the results of a site-directed mutagenesis(More)
Cyan variants of green fluorescent protein are widely used as donors in Förster resonance energy transfer experiments. The popular, but modestly bright, Enhanced Cyan Fluorescent Protein (ECFP) was sequentially improved into the brighter variants Super Cyan Fluorescent Protein 3A (SCFP3A) and mTurquoise, the latter exhibiting a high-fluorescence quantum(More)
Fluorescent proteins have become extremely popular tools for in vivo imaging and especially for the study of localization, motility and interaction of proteins in living cells. Here we report TagRFP, a monomeric red fluorescent protein, which is characterized by high brightness, complete chromophore maturation, prolonged fluorescence lifetime and high(More)
The leading edge of Dictyostelium cells in chemoattractant gradients can be visualized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged to the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain of cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase (CRAC), which presumable binds phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]. Uniform cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations induce(More)
In plants one bona fide Galpha subunit has been identified, as well as a single Gbeta and two Ggamma subunits. To study the roles of lipidation motifs in the regulation of subcellular location and heterotrimer formation in living plant cells, GFP-tagged versions of the Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric G protein subunits were constructed. Mutational(More)
Phospholipase C (PLC) β isoforms are implicated in various physiological processes and pathologies. However, mechanistic insight into the localization and activation of each of the isoforms is limited. Therefore, it is crucial to gain more in-depth knowledge as to the regulation of the different isoforms. Here we describe the subcellular location of(More)
Intercellular signaling through trafficking of regulatory proteins is a widespread phenomenon in plants and can deliver positional information for the determination of cell fate. In the Arabidopsis root meristem, the cell fate determinant SHORT-ROOT (SHR), a GRAS domain transcription factor, acts as a signaling molecule from the stele to the adjacent layer(More)
To understand how multiprotein complexes assemble and function on chromatin, we combined quantitative analysis of the mammalian nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) machinery in living cells with computational modeling. We found that individual NER components exchange within tens of seconds between the bound state in repair complexes and the diffusive state(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the neuronal-specific protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) gene. Since most mutations causing SCA14 are located in the PKCgamma C1B regulatory subdomain, we investigated the impact of three C1B mutations on the intracellular kinetics, protein conformation and kinase(More)