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—This paper presents a systematic approach to generate walking primitive databases for anthropomorphic 3D–bipeds allowing step length adaptation, direction changes and stepping over obstacles. The individual walking primitives are derived by optimal control techniques. Zero moment point (ZMP) and friction conditions at the feet ensuring postural stability(More)
Around two decades ago, active magnetic bearings (AMBs) were introduced into oil and gas applications but never gained any relevant market share in large turbomachinery drive trains. This paper discusses how standard drive technology from machine tool applications can be used to control AMB systems. As a proof of the concept, results of prototype testing(More)
This paper presents a general method for generating walking primitives for anthropomorphic 3D–bipeds. Corresponding control torques allowing straight ahead walking with pre–swing, swing, and heel–contact are derived by dynamic optimization using a direct collo-cation approach. The computed torques minimize an energy based, mixed performance index. Zero(More)
In contrast to conventional drives, with direct drives the motor is not created until it is integrated into the machine. The mechanical and electrical subsystems are merged to form the mechatronic system by the velocity and position control loops. Since control parameters have a crucial influence on the behavior of the complete system, a main goal of this(More)
In the Oil & Gas industry, the primary bearing is an oil sleeve bearing. Around two decades ago, active magnetic bearings (AMB) were introduced into the market but they never gained a relevant market share in large turbo machinery. This paper discusses how standard drive technology can be successfully adapted to control AMB systems. Furthermore, results(More)
This paper is focused on practical questions arising when purchasing or specifying high-speed rotating machines with active magnetic bearings (AMBs). It may be used as a guideline for end users, engineering/procurement/construction (EPC) companies, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in their engineering and purchase departments. This paper explains(More)