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The catastrophic collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001, created an immense dust cloud followed by fires that emitted soot into the air of New York City (NYC) well into December. The subsequent cleanup used diesel equipment that further polluted the air until the following June. The particulate air pollutants contained mutagenic and(More)
JP-8 jet fuel (similar to commercial/international jet A-1 fuel) is the standard military fuel for all types of vehicles, including the U.S. Air Force aircraft inventory. As such, JP-8 presents the most common chemical exposure in the Air Force, particularly for flight and ground crew personnel during preflight operations and for maintenance personnel(More)
Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a gasoline additive used to increase octane and reduce carbon monoxide emissions and ozone precursors, has contaminated drinking water and can lead to exposure by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. To determine its dermal, oral, and inhalation kinetics, 14 volunteers were exposed to 51.3 microg/ml MTBE dermally in tap(More)
Real-world exposure measurements are a necessary ingredient for subsequent detailed study of the risks from an environmental pollutant. For volatile organic compounds, researchers are applying exhaled breath analysis and the time dependence of concentrations as a noninvasive indicator of exposure, dose, and blood levels. To optimize the acquisition of such(More)
The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of bloodborne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds, sampling and analysis of breath is(More)
Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such acute exposure studies of healthy subjects to diesel exhaust and DEP demonstrate a(More)
Environmental links to disease are difficult to uncover because environmental exposures are variable in time and space, contaminants occur in complex mixtures, and many diseases have a long time delay between exposure and onset. Furthermore, individuals in a population have different activity patterns (e.g., hobbies, jobs, and interests), and different(More)
As a discipline of public health, environmental health science is the study of the linkage from environmental pollution sources to eventual adverse health outcome. This progression may be divided into two components, (1) "exposure assessment," which deals with the source terms, environmental transport, human exposure routes, and internal dose, and (2)(More)
Adverse health risks from environmental agents are generally related to average (long-term) exposures. Because a given individual's contact with a pollutant is highly variable and dependent on activity patterns, local sources and exposure pathways, simple 'snapshot' measurements of surrounding environmental media may not accurately assign the exposure(More)
According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene-environment interaction. Environmental exposure science is now embarking on a new "discovery" path for decoding the human exposome using biomarkers in breath and other biological media.