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Inducible defences are adaptive phenotypes that arise in response to predation threats. Such plasticity incurs costs to individuals, but there has been little interest in how such induced traits in animals may be constrained by environmental factors. Here, we demonstrate that calcium availability interacts with predation cues to modify snail shell growth(More)
A generic design of multiphase (m-phase) sinusoidal oscillators is presented, suitable for both odd and even output phases. The practical odd-phase oscillator described uses a lowpass section in cascade with (m $1)/2 dual-output sections having lowpass and allpass outputs with a frequency adjusted using only (m + 1)/2 grounded resistors. This is a(More)
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