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Phenotypically "immature" dendritic cells (DCs), defined by low cell surface CD40, CD80, and CD86 can elicit host immune suppression in allotransplantation and autoimmunity. Herein, we report the most direct means of achieving phenotypic immaturity in NOD bone marrow-derived DCs aiming at preventing diabetes in syngeneic recipients. CD40, CD80, and CD86(More)
While much is known about tolerogenic dendritic cell effects on forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)⁺ regulatory T cells, virtually nothing is known about their effects on another arm of immunoregulation that is mediated by a subpopulation of immunosuppressive B cells. These cells suppress rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease in mice, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The safety of dendritic cells to selectively suppress autoimmunity, especially in type 1 diabetes, has never been ascertained. We investigated the safety of autologous dendritic cells, stabilized into an immunosuppressive state, in established adult type 1 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized, double-blind, phase I study(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) classically promote immune responses but can be manipulated to induce antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness in vitro. The expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD86, CD80) at the DC cell surface correlates with their capacity to induce or suppress immune responses. Expression of these molecules is associated with NF-kB-dependent(More)
Dendritic cells can facilitate allograft survival and prevent autoimmunity via direct and indirect cell-mediated mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate that immunoregulatory dendritic cells (iDCs) confer immune hyporesponsiveness in part through CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells (Tregs). Herein, we provide evidence to support the hypothesis that dendritic(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) induce and regulate T-cell-mediated immune responses. Circulating precursor (p)DC1 and pDC2 from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection were quantified by flow cytometry. To assess their function, DC1 were cultured from patients and compared to those of healthy volunteers. HBV patients exhibited a significant decrease(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was aimed at ascertaining the efficacy of antisense oligonucleotide-formulated microspheres to prevent type 1 diabetes and to reverse new-onset disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Microspheres carrying antisense oligonucleotides to CD40, CD80, and CD86 were delivered into NOD mice. Glycemia was monitored to determine disease(More)
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring derivative of glucose and is an essential component of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, important constituents of many eukaryotic proteins. In cells, glucosamine is produced enzymatically by the amidation of glucose 6-phosphate and can then be further modified by acetylation to result in N-acetylglucosamine.(More)
The search for mammalian DNA regulatory regions poses a challenging problem in computational biology. The short length of the DNA patterns compared with the size of the promoter regions and the degeneracy of the patterns makes their identification difficult. One way to overcome this problem is to use evolutionary information to reduce the number of(More)
The objective of the study was to identify immune cell populations, in addition to Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells, that participate in the mechanisms of action of tolerogenic dendritic cells shown to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes in the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse strain. Co-culture experiments using tolerogenic dendritic cells and B-cells from NOD as(More)