Joëlle Fustec

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Because nitrogen is one of the major elements limiting growth of plants in agrosystems, large amounts of N fertilisers have been used in the second half of the twentieth century. Chemical fertilisers have contributed to increasing crop yields and food supply, but they have induced environmental damage such as nitrate pollution and wasting fossil fuel. The(More)
Legume-brassica intercrops may help to reduce N fertilizer input. We tested whether (i) intercropping with faba bean can improve N status of rapeseed, and (ii) root complementarity and/or N transfer is involved in such performance. Pre-germinated rapeseed and faba bean were grown either together or in monospecific rhizotrons (2 plants per rhizotron). Root(More)
Field experiments were carried out during three successive years to study through a dynamic approach the competition for soil N and its interaction with N2 fixation, leaf expansion and crop growth in pea–barley intercrops. The intensity of competition for soil N varied between experiments according to soil N supply and plant densities. This study(More)
Differences in the ability to fix and transfer N have been shown between perennial legume species. However, the traits responsible for such variations are largely to be identified. This study aimed at comparing the dynamics of N transfer from alfalfa and white clover and test whether their differences resulted from difference in fixation, legume proportion,(More)
Two 15N labelling methods for assessing net rhizodeposition of nitrogen (N) in pea crop (Pisum sativum L.) were compared in the greenhouse and in the field: the cotton-wick (CW) and the split-root (SR) methods. Rhizodeposition is defined as the organic material lost from roots during their growth through the soil. CW is a method in which 15N urea was(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS To improve the management of grass communities, early plant development was compared in three species with contrasting growth forms, a caespitose (Lolium perenne), a rhizomatous (Poa pratensis) and a caespitose-stoloniferous species (Agrostis stolonifera). METHODS Isolated seedlings were grown in a glasshouse without trophic(More)
In the part of the Loire River recently colonized by Eurasian beavers, we compared habitat characteristics among sites with lodges, sites with cut trees and sites without beaver. The absence of sandbank and canopy cover (by 10-15-m tall trees, by tall Salicaceae, and by bushy Salicaceae) appeared as good predictors for lodge settling. Based on this model,(More)
Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to(More)
Rhododendron catawbiense cv. Album propagated in vitro were transferred ex vitro and grown in a greenhouse, under long or short days. Under long days, the rhythmic growth led to an acrotonous development. In contrast, under short days, the upper buds were unable to burst, allowing basitony. In both photoperiodic conditions, the apical buds were sampled at(More)
In order to control young plant form by modifying culture conditions, plants of Rhododendron catawbiense from in vitro culture were grown in a greenhouse under different photoperiodic treatments (long or short days) combined or not with a several-week nitrogen starvation. After 12 weeks of culture under long days (16 h) with nitrogen supply, plants showed a(More)
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