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In western countries, every woman out of eight will develop breast cancer. Over the last two decades, the incidence has considerably increased, but mortality has remained stable and begins to decrease in Europe and the United-States, probably because of new therapy, changes in the use of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women and early(More)
Growth factors related to TGF-beta provide important signals for patterning the vertebrate body plan. One such family member, nodal, is required for formation of the primitive streak during mouse gastrulation. Here we have used a nodal-lacZ reporter allele to demonstrate asymmetric nodal expression in the mouse node, a structure thought to be the functional(More)
A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is deleted in a line of XY female mice mutant for Tdy, and is expressed at a stage during male gonadal development consistent with its having a role in testis determination. This gene is a member of a new family of at least five mouse genes, related by an amino-acid motif showing(More)
The Y chromosome determines maleness in mammals. A Y chromosome-linked gene diverts the indifferent embryonic gonad from the default ovarian pathway in favour of testis differentiation, initiating male development. Study of this basic developmental switch requires the isolation of the testis-determining gene, termed TDF in humans and Tdy in mice. ZFY, a(More)
Two cases of Lhermitte-Duclos disease confirmed by biopsy are reported. Review of the 58 published cases shows that the disease can manifest itself only by signs of increased intracranial pressure. Cerebellar symptoms are not constant. Computed tomographic (CT) scans suggest the diagnosis by showing a posterior fossa lesion, iso- and hypodense, partially(More)
Neurosarcoma is a rare tumour originating from the sheath of peripheral nerves. Facial lesions have been reported in about 20 patients. We describe the MRI appearances of neurosarcoma with histological correlation in three patients. The lesions lay in the submandibular region, the left parapharyngeal space and the right orbit. MRI showed a well-defined mass(More)
The authors report a case of an intradural spinal meningioma ventrally located just rear to the 5th cervical body. The patient (a 46-year-old woman) suffered from a spasmodic quadriplegia, walking was nearly impossible. Because of the strictly median and ventral localization the authors have chosen an anterior approach passing through the body of C5 after(More)
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the absence of HER2 overexpression. These cancers represent a heterogeneous breast cancer subtype with a poor prognosis. Few systemic treatment options exist besides the use of chemotherapy (CT). The heterogeneity of the disease has limited the(More)
you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms Dear editor Recently, we read with great interest the review by Collignon et al(More)