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Harmful Trichodesmium blooms have been reported on the continental slope of the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean; we sampled six such blooms. The highest saxitoxin concentration was observed where the number of colonies was proportionally greater relative to the total density of trichomes. Trichodesmium blooms are harmful to shrimp larvae and may lead to(More)
Determination of total antioxidant capacity, instead of the measurements of limited number of antioxidants, is very important for the understanding of how antioxidants interact with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several techniques already exist with this propose, although some of them are extremely time-consuming. A new methodology is proposed, based on(More)
Microcystins are toxins produced by cyanobacteria, being toxic to aquatic fauna. It was evaluated alternative mechanisms of microcystins toxicity, including oxidative stress and histopathology in the hepatopancreas of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda, Grapsidae). Microcystins was administered to crabs (MIC group) over 1 week, whereas(More)
The objective of this work was to evaluate mechanisms of microcystin toxicity on crustacean species. Adult male crabs of Chasmagnathus granulatus (13.97+/-0.35 g) acclimated to low salinity (2 per thousand ) were injected with saline (control) or Microcystis aeruginosa aqueous extract (39.2 microg/l) at 24 h intervals for 48 h. After the exposure period,(More)
Microcystins produced by cyanobacteria are potent inhibitors of some protein phosphatases, but recent evidence also indicates its potential to generate oxidative stress. In the present study, the effects of microcystin raw extracts (Mic; 0.01 and 20microg/L) and purified okadaic acid (OA; 0.01 and 10microg/L) on short- and long-term memory alteration and(More)
The effects of temperature and pH during extraction of toxin(s) from the cyanobacterial genus Anabaena were studied. Different extracts were compared for their anticholinesterase potency against purified eel acetylcholinesterase. A lyophilized powder from Anabaeba spiroides cells was dissolved in ethanol, sonicated, and filtered. This solution was then(More)
Biological degradation of cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystins in estuarine and coastal water samples from the Patos Lagoon estuarine system, a coastal lagoon situated at the southernmost region of Brazil, was observed. Samples of natural surface water were spiked with purified and semi-purified microcystins (MC-LR and [D-Leu(1)]MC-LR) and their(More)
We evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium-producing microcystin (MC), Microcystis aeruginosa (strain RST9501), on detoxification capacity and glutathione (GSH) synthesis in liver, brain, gill, and muscle-as well as apoptotic protease (calpain) activity in liver and brain-in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).(More)
This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg/kg lipoic acid solution. A(More)
[D-Leu1]Microcystin-LR was identified as the most abundant microcystin from a laboratory strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis sp. isolated from a hepatotoxic Microcystis bloom from brackish waters in the Patos Lagoon estuary, southern Brazil. Toxicity of [D-Leu1]microcystin-LR, according to bioassay and protein phosphatase inhibition assay, was similar(More)